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, Lat. Ulysses , in Greek mythology, son and successor of King Laertes of Ithaca. A leader of Greek forces during the Trojan War, Odysseus was noted (as in the Iliad) for his cunning strategy and his wise counsel.
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Ulysses(yoo-liss -eez) A joint ESA/NASA mission to study for the first time the properties of the interplanetary medium and solar wind away from the plane of the ecliptic and over the polar regions of the Sun. The ESA spacecraft was launched by NASA in Oct. 1990, toward Jupiter. It encountered Jupiter in Feb. 1992, approaching close over the north pole then swinging under the south pole, and the gravity of the massive planet accelerated the probe out of the ecliptic plane into a polar orbit of the Sun; the inclination of its orbit to the ecliptic is in fact 80°. (No rocket has sufficient thrust to launch a probe directly into such an orbit.) It passed under the Sun's south pole in May 1994 and over the north pole in May 1995, crossing the ecliptic in Feb. 1995. Its nine scientific instruments took measurements throughout the mission. They measured the solar wind from the Sun's polar regions at both solar maximum and minimum, they studied the interplanetary magnetic field and found that the magnetic flux emanating from the Sun is the same at all latitudes, and they discovered ‘pools' of energetic particles surrounding the Sun. Ulysses also discovered the presence of interstellar dust in the Solar System, measured cosmic rays flowing into the Solar System, made the first measurement of interstellar helium atoms in the Solar System, and analyzed solar X-rays, radio waves and plasma waves, and Jupiter's magnetosphere. Ulysses' mission continued throughout the 1990s and early 2000s and was extended several times; the latest extension, announced in 2004, continued Ulysses' operation up to 2008.
Joyce novel long banned in U.S. for its sexual frankness. [Irish Lit.: Benét, 1037]