One scrapbook, actually primarily a photo album, seems to have been crafted as a linear, visual narrative of Arnott's time in Africa, starting with images of her trip across the Atlantic to Europe and on to the Umbundu highlands, progressing through her mission service, and closing with images from her journey home on furlough.
Her writings showed that she abhorred traditional Umbundu cultural practices such as polygyny and the drinking of local alcoholic beverages but also that she saw her individual students as highly intelligent and fully capable of leading their own churches and Christian communities.
Such cases seemed especially important to interrogate when published accounts written by others depicted local Umbundu people more negatively than did Arnott's private texts.
How could we honor the experiences of her Umbundu students, both ethically and practically?
Table 1: Number of years languages other than English were studied Language Number 3 Years 7 Years 12 Years Afrikaans 22 10 12 French 3 3 German 6 4 2 Oshindonga 11 1 3 7 Khoekhoegowab 3 1 2 Ndebele 1 1 Oshikwanyama 6 1 2 3 Oshiwambo 5 1 1 3 Otjiherero 1 1 Rukwangali 1 1 Shona 1 1 Table 2: First languages of respondents LANGUAGE NUMBER English 25 Oshikwanyama 9 Afrikaans 21 Oshiwambo 9 Oshindonga 9 Khoekhoegowab 7 German 2 Rukwangali 1 Subia 1 Silozi 1 Umbundu
1 Shona 1 Table 4: Languages studied at tertiary level LANGUAGE NUMBER Oshikwanyama 1 Otjiherero 1 Oshiwambo 4 Afrikaans 3 French 4 Portuguese 3 Oshindonga 3 German 3 TOTAL 21
From the etymologies of Calunga's Bantu words it is evident that these Africans were speakers of Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo--Bantu languages commonly spoken today in Congo and Angola.
Typologically homogenous, Kikongo was spoken by the Bakongo people of the former Congo Kingdom; Kimbundu by the Mbundu (or Ambundu) people of Central Angola; and Umbundu by the Ovimbundu people near the port of Benguela (Bonvini and Petter 1998:73; Castro 2001:34-37).
Castro (2002:39-43) argues that the predominate presence of speakers of Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo in colonial Brazil was due to the extended period of exportation--some four centuries , the demographic density where these languages were spoken in Africa, and their extensive geographic distribution in Brazil.
By this term they mean not only the distance between how the Umbundu
experienced their own society and Arnott's ability to understand and report on those experiences, but also Arnott's changing perceptions about Umbundu
society and her need to meet the expectations of her various audiences in the United States.
2) Following Dan Crawford, a well-informed missionary, Garenganze was the Umbundu name for Msiri's kingdom, a term borrowed from Bugaraganza, used by travellers coming from the East.
Childs, Umbundu Kinship and Character (Oxford: University Press, 1949), 211; this work remains fundamental also for the rubber cycle in Central Angola.
Childs, Umbundu Kinship and Character (London: Oxford University Press, 1949); the succession of cycles and of generations of traders has been carefully defined by Maria Emilia Madeira Santos in her classic Nos caminhos de Africa (Lisbon: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, 1998).