Umma


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Umma

 

(Sumerian, Ubme), an ancient Sumerian city-state in southern Mesopotamia (the modern archaeological site of Jokha in Iraq).

During the third millennium B.C., Umma struggled with Lagash over border territories and canals until the 24th century, when Lagash was defeated by Lugal-zaggesi, the ruler of Umma. At the end of the 24th century, Umma and other Sumerian cities were conquered by Sargon I the Ancient and thus fell under Akkadian control. Umma was invaded by the Guti circa 2200. In the 21st century, under the Third Dynasty of Ur, the city became a provincial center of the kingdom of Sumer and Akkad. After the dynasty’s fall circa 2000 B.C., Umma ceased to be of importance.

At the beginning of the 20th century, cuneiform tablets were discovered at Jokha by local inhabitants. These tablets, which constitute palace and temple economic records from the 23rd to 21st centuries, enabled V. V. Struve to deduce that Sumer was a slaveholding society.

REFERENCES

Struve, V. V. “Novye dannye ob organizatsii truda i sotsial’noi strukture obshchestva Sumera epokhi III dinastii Ura.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1949, no. 6.
Tiumenev, A. I. Gosudarstvennoe khoziaistvo drevnego Shumera. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
References in periodicals archive ?
"We have our various components with the organization (UMMA media network)," Richardson said.
He added "the reason the call is for the Movement's, represented by its president Allawi, and the editor-in-chief of the newspaper, and head of the movement in Kut, defamation Umma Party, describing it with bad descriptions such as deviation and homosexuality, indicating that this is documented in the newspaper of the movement." /End/
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The United Minority Media Association (UMMA) www.KKFI.org is a nonprofit, volunteer organization of minority entrepreneurs, professionals and students in the communications and media industry.
"We have decided to boycott the electoral process at all levels," Sarah Nugdalla, head of Umma's political bureau, told a group of journalists after a party meeting in Omdurman, across the River Nile from the capital Khartoum.
Umma head Sadeq al-Mahdi, Sudan s last democratically elected leader, listed eight demands including a four-week delay to be agreed to before April 6, or his party would boycott all parts of the presidential, legislative and gubernatorial votes.
"He has been nominated presidential candidate," an Umma party official told AFP .
Trying to find balance between his religiosity and his liberal beliefs, he founded the new Umma Party in 1983, advocating the establishment of social democracy while maintaining Sharia as the primary source of legislation.
This book contrasts colonially induced national identities to the pre-colonial Islamic identities that revolved around the concepts of the Umma ('nation') and the Dawla ('state').
Up to that point, the preeminence of the prophet and the four-caliph thesis created a consensus among the community of believers, the umma, despite early signs of dissent, in particular among the 'Alids (followers of the fourth caliph, 'Ali, son-in-law and cousin of the prophet, who became known as the Shi'is).
In a urinary methylmalonic acid (UMMA) screening study of nonanemic elderly individuals age [greater than or equal to] 65 years (2), 7 of 16 cobalamin-deficient individuals tested had tHcy <16.2 [micro]mol/L.
Umma Messenger Texts in the British Museum, Part One.