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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Sumerian, Ubme), an ancient Sumerian city-state in southern Mesopotamia (the modern archaeological site of Jokha in Iraq).

During the third millennium B.C., Umma struggled with Lagash over border territories and canals until the 24th century, when Lagash was defeated by Lugal-zaggesi, the ruler of Umma. At the end of the 24th century, Umma and other Sumerian cities were conquered by Sargon I the Ancient and thus fell under Akkadian control. Umma was invaded by the Guti circa 2200. In the 21st century, under the Third Dynasty of Ur, the city became a provincial center of the kingdom of Sumer and Akkad. After the dynasty’s fall circa 2000 B.C., Umma ceased to be of importance.

At the beginning of the 20th century, cuneiform tablets were discovered at Jokha by local inhabitants. These tablets, which constitute palace and temple economic records from the 23rd to 21st centuries, enabled V. V. Struve to deduce that Sumer was a slaveholding society.


Struve, V. V. “Novye dannye ob organizatsii truda i sotsial’noi strukture obshchestva Sumera epokhi III dinastii Ura.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1949, no. 6.
Tiumenev, A. I. Gosudarstvennoe khoziaistvo drevnego Shumera. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In his opening speech during the National Ummah Unity Convention on Sunday, Aminuddin alleged that one of CFM's resolutions is to place as many Christians as possible in national leadership positions, as part of an evangelical drive.
The participants raised slogans against Israel and US imperialists and called upon the Muslim Ummah to unite for liberating Qibla-e-Awal from the occupation of Zionist forces.
He said Allama Iqbal was the great proponent of unity of Muslim Ummah and reliance on their resources and strength.
The concept of Ummah Khayrah must be understood in the light of other principles that connect to important institutions that will help attain it.
However, he said, there was an awakening among the Ummah, which was disturbing the ruling junta.Holding the rulers responsible for all social, political and economic problems of the country, the JI chief said that ousted prime minister Nawaz Sharif could not establish a single good standard hospital in the country during his prolonged rule where his wife could be treated.
Ummah Finance claimed that none of the Islamic banks in the nation offered sharia-compliant digital solutions.
Sardar Ayaz Sadiq underscored the need for the Muslim Ummah to stand united at this critical juncture, adding all Pakistani condemns terrorism in all its manifestations.
But the Islamic Ummah, following all the sufferings in the past several years, is quite vigilant and knows who the enemy is, he said.
Riszwan Rehman, of Linthorpe, chairman of One Ummah, said: "We've been serving pizza and biryani, and people have been really happy with that.
"Islamic unity which is the basic slogan of the Islamic Republic means that the Islamic Ummah shouldn't practice hostility towards each other, but should support each other in (dealing with) important global issues," Ayatollah Khamenei said in a meeting with Iranian Hajj officials in Tehran on Tuesday.
"Brother, do you believe that there is hope for the Muslim Ummah?" He inquired about the future of a nation, which he believed we both indisputably belonged to, and anxiously awaited as if my answer carried any weight at all and would put his evident worries at ease.