Underlying Surface

Underlying Surface

 

the earth’s surface considered from the point of view of its interaction with the atmosphere in the process of heat and moisture exchange. Differences in the nature of the underlying surface— between land and water surfaces, mountains and plains, forests and fields, and so forth— have a significant effect on the physical state of the atmosphere, that is, on weather and climate. Differences in the absorption, expenditure, and accumulation of the sun’s radiant energy by different areas of the underlying surface have a significant effect on the general circulation of the atmosphere and, in addition, are the cause of local atmospheric circulation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Underlying Surface Data and Atmospheric Forcing Data.
Now biologists report that the mechanism underlying surface changes of at least one species of bacterium closely resembles the very mechanism the immune system uses to generate its wide range of antibodies.
* A bruise is an internal wound which causes pressure or injury to an underlying surface
Such process control could be applied to the laser cleaning of rust, for example, as the thickness of rust at each position would be unknown, while zero laser damage should occur to the underlying surface. The NN was not only able to cease laser machining at exactly the point of complete removal of the copper, but was able to predict the time remaining until task completion.
Sealing the underlying surface first keeps moisture in the joint compound from seeping under the adjoining wallpaper and loosening it.
They noted that different responses of precipitation and storm runoff to temperature can be attributed not only to warming, but also to factors like land-use and land-cover changes, water and land management, and vegetation changes that have altered the underlying surface conditions and hydrological feedbacks that have, in turn, increased storm runoff.
Taking into account the change in the underlying surface and other factors such as the change in the relationship between precipitation and sediment yield, the baseline period of the HLR is from 1956 to 1977; for more details, the readers can refer to Liu [1].
Imagery of areas with dense vegetation cover will not accurately represent the underlying surface area.
Da (2013) discussed the shallow water equation forms when underlying surface slowly changes with time and obtained the vorticity equation with an underlying surface.
This film layer self-assembles with lamella or cylinders perpendicular to the underlying surface. The surface-active polymers must be miscible with the block copolymers and lower the surface energy of the polycarbonate blocks.
As highlighted by DIC images, a well-preserved adhesion to the underlying surface was observed for BAp_HT film, whereas film adhesion was only partially maintained in HA_HT counterpart, barely detectable in BAp_AD films and completely lost in HA_AD.