Cryptorchidism

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cryptorchidism

[krip′tȯr·kə‚diz·əm]
(medicine)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cryptorchidism

 

in man and certain animals (horses, dogs), a developmental defect in which during intrauterine development a testis fails to descend to its normal position in the scrotum.

The formation of spermatozoa in an undescended testis may be diminished or absent. In man, unilateral cryptorchidism is usually caused by intra-abdominal adhesions, shortening of the ductus deferens, underdevelopment of the internal spermatic artery, or narrowness of the inguinal canal. Bilateral cryptorchidism is usually associated with disturbances of hormonal balance, insufficiency of gonadotropic hormones, or hereditary biological factors. Cryptorchidism is classified as abdominal or inguinal, according to whether the testis is retained in the abdomen or in the inguinal canal. Often the testis descends into the scrotum by the age of ten or 12. Hence, cryptorchidism is observed in only 0.3 percent of adults but in 2–3 percent of children and prepubescents.

Cryptorchidism is treated in children by hormone therapy (pituitary gonadotropic hormone and androgens), accelerating testicular development. Surgery is indicated if this treatment proves unsuccessful.

V. G. TSOMYK

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mean operative time for 14 bilateral undescended testes was 102.76 (with SD of 2.37 and SEM of 5.08) minutes while as for 19 unilateral cases, it was 53.67 (with SD of 5.38 and SEM of 4.02) minutes.
However, unlike in the Western population, malignancy developing in the undescended testes was rare.
Epididymal abnormalities associated with undescended testes. The Journal of Urology, 121(3), 341-343.
(21) As in our case, male newborns with 17-[beta]-HSD3 deficiency usually have external genitalia with feminizing features together with undescended testes usually in the inguinal region or in a bifid scrotum.
Other non-urgent surgical conditions Aetiology Aetiology Hydrocele Caused by a patent * Seen either in (Smith and Kenny processus vaginalis neonates or early 2008, Tiemstra and allowing fluid to infancy Kapoor 2008) collect around the testes * Non-tender fluid filled scrotal swelling * Transilluminates when a torch is shone under the scrotum Undescended testes Incidence 33% in Picked up during (Sinha et al, 2008; pre-terms, 3-5% in routine baby checks: Docimo et al, 2000) full term neonates unable to palpate and 0.8 -1% by 1 testes at the base year of age of the scrotum Hypospadias Congenital * Backward stream (Kraft et al, 2011; abnormality.
Children aged 9 months to 12 years, diagnosed as cases of palpable undescended testes were randomized into two groups.
Since undescended testes have a higher incidence of developing testis cancer, it is particularly important to bring these testes into a palpable position in the scrotum.
Undescended testes carry a higher potential for malignant transformation than normally descended testis.
Women who take over-the-counter painkillers during pregnancy have an increased risk of having sons born with undescended testes, according to a study that also incorporates rat models to show why this might be.
Testicular abnormalities in development (e.g., undescended testes, congenital inguinal hernia, or testicular injury) may change the estrogen-level balance.
The results showed that women who used more than one painkiller simultaneously were seven times more likely to give birth to sons with some form of undescended testes compared with women who did not take the drugs.
Presentations other than testicular mass were abdominal mass (9--38%), primary infertility (3--13%), gynaecomastia (6--25%) and undescended testes in 1 (4%) patient.