Unified System of Computers
Unified System of Computers
a complex system of stationary, third-generation digital computers that use integrated microcircuits and have a broad range of speeds—from tens of thousands to several million operations per sec. The development and serious production of computers in the system have been conducted jointly by specialists from Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, the USSR, and Czechoslovakia.
The Unified System of Computers is characterized by program compatibility (the possibility of running a program compiled for one model of the system on other models of the system), an expanded stock of available peripheral equipment, and a well-developed software system. Program compatibility has been achieved by establishing common design principles for all computers, a common data-coding system, and a common set of instructions. This provides a common operating system and makes it possible to write programs that are not oriented solely toward one specific computer in the system. The hardware and software permit computer operation in the multiple programming mode, batch processing mode, real-time mode, conversational mode, time-sharing mode, and “inquiry-reply” mode.
All computers in the system are designed according to the modular principle, based on a standard system of connections between devices. Modular design ensures hardware uniformity and system continuity, makes it possible to create computer systems of different configurations, and permits changes in configuration during computer operation. It also increases throughput by replacing the central processor with another processor from the complement provided in the system and expands the size of the working memory and the variety of peripheral equipment used.
The Unified System of Computers is constantly being improved
|Table 1. Specifications Of Computers In The Unified System Of Computers|
|Specifications||Computer model, country of manufacture, year developed|
|ES–1010 Hungary 1972||ES–1020 USSR 1971||ES–1021 Czechoslovakia 1972||ES–1030 USSR, Poland 1971||ES–1040 E. Germany 1971||ES–1050 USSR 1972||ES–1022 USSR 1975||ES–1032 Poland 1975||ES–1033 USSR 1977||ES–1060 USSR 1977|
|Speed (thousand operations per sec) ...............||10||20||40||100||350||500||80||200||200||2,000|
|Word length (bits) ...............||18||8||64||32||64||64||8||32||32||64|
|Capacity (thousand bytes)||8–64||64–256||16–64||256–512||128–1,024||256–1,024||128–512||128–1,024||512–1,024||2,048–8,192|
|Access time (μsee) ...............||1.0||2.0||2||1.25||1.00||1.25||2||1.2||1.25||0.65|
|Transmission rate (thousand bytes persec) ...............||200||800||250||800||1,250||1,250||500||1,100||800||1,300|
|Transmission rate (thousand bytes per sec)|
|Exclusive mode ...............||200||100||220||300||670||670||300||470||350||670|
|Multiplex mode ...............||30||16||35||40||110||110||40||145||70||110|
|Number of shared subchannels ...............||135||128||128||128||192||192||128||196||256||224|
|Power consumption (kVA) ...............||12||21||13||27||60||100||25||23||25||80|
and developed. In 1977 and 1978, six more computers were in the research and development stage: the models ES-1015, ES-1025, ES-1035, ES-;1045, ES-1055, and ES-1065.
The nucleus of each computer is the processor, which consists of a central control unit, an arithmetic-logic unit, and a working memory (structurally, the working memory may either be a part of the processor or form an independent unit). Processors have a system of program interrupts and make it possible to implement multiple programming operation of the computer and simultaneous operation of peripheral equipment. Data are exchanged between the processor and peripheral equipment through selector and multiplex channels. The coupling of controllers to channels is accomplished through a standard communications system with unified structural and logic elements and standardized signals.
The peripheral equipment includes memory units—magnetic drums (with capacities of 2 million and 16 million bytes), fixed (nonremovable) magnetic disks (100 million bytes), replaceable magnetic disk packs (7.25 million and 29 million bytes), magnetic tapes (20–40 million bytes), and magnetic cards (125 million bytes); data input-output devices using paper tape (input rates of 1,000 and 1,500 lines per sec and output rates of 100,150, and 200 lines per sec) and punched cards (input rates of 500,1,000,1,500, and 2,000 cards per min and output rates of 100 and 250 cards per min); alphanumeric printers (with printing rates of 600, 900, and 1,100 lines per min); plotting boards and roll-type plotters; and devices for direct communication between the human operator and the computer (alphanumeric and graphic displays and electric typewriters). Data-originating devices comprise a separate group.
In order to create computer systems for collective use (seeCOMPUTER NETWORK), the Unified System of Computers incorporates remote data-processing equipment, including data transmission equipment (modems, error-protection devices, and call devices), devices for linking channels to data transmission equipment, and terminals equipped with data input-output devices and devices for data display. The software for the Unified System of Computers consists of operational systems that ensure efficient operation of a computer regardless of its configuration or the nature of the problems being solved, control the flow of assignments, increase the throughput of the computer by implementing its various modes of operation (such as multiple programming operation), distribute computer resources among the programs being run, and monitor the operation of hardware. The Unified System of Computers can serve as the basis for creating multiprocessor and multimachine complexes for solving diverse problems in the organization, control, planning, accounting, processing, and analysis of large volumes of data and for performing scientific, technical, and engineering calculations.
REFERENCESShelikhov, A. A., and Iu. P. Selivanov. Vychislitel’nye mashiny. Moscow, 1973.
Edinaia sistema EVM. Edited by A. M. Larionov. Moscow, 1974.
Sistema dokumentatsii edinoi sistemy EVM. Edited by A. M. Larionov. Moscow, 1975.
V. N. KVASNITSKII