Unitary State

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Unitary State

 

In contrast to a federation, which is composed of federative units, such as states or Länder, a unitary state is divided into administrative and territorial units, such as departments, regions, and districts. The unitary state has a single constitution for the entire state, a general system of laws, and a unified system of bodies of state power. These attributes of the unitary state provide the necessary organizational and legal bases for the centralized guidance of social processes and for the maintenance of strong central authority in the state. All socialist states are unitary states, with the exceptions of the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, which are socialist federations.

Most contemporary bourgeois states—including Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan—are unitary states. In contemporary bourgeois federations—such as the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Canada—the processes of economic and political centralization, which are characteristic of the period of statemonopoly capitalism, lead to the dominance of unitary tendencies; in these countries the role and influence of federal bodies of state power are constantly growing.

References in periodicals archive ?
Unitary states govern the majority of the 193 countries in the United Nations, and 27 countries, comprising 40 percent of the world's population, have adopted a federal system of government.
Less attention has been paid to decentralized, non-coercive mechanisms for policy change in unitary states. One of the reasons for this bias is probably that lower-level tiers of government are on the whole more autonomous in federal systems than in unitary states (Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2011, p.
ySTANBUL (CyHAN)- President Recep Tayyip Erdoy-an referenced Hitler's Germany while claiming that there are examples of successful "presidency" models in unitary states. It was quite an interesting example.
This paper argues such incongruity is due to a theoretical framework employed by existing international relations scholarship that uses conceptions of unitary states and societies, and this paper asserts instead that the behavior of Chinese netizens may be better addressed by an alternative theoretical approach that describes on-line communities as cultures.
I prefer this concept to the well-known asymmetric federalism, due to its larger sphere: it is appropriate for the classical federations as well as for the unitary states and for the supranational structures (i.e., the European Union).
(2001) demonstrated analytically and with simulations that tax rate changes cause little or no change in the allocation of property and labor for nonunitary states, but can result in significant changes for unitary states. These conclusions are consistent with firms in unitary states being less able to use tax-planning techniques to minimize state income taxes, as well as being taxed on a broader base of income (Moore et al.
Due to the elimination of intercorporate transactions, pursuant to a combined income tax filing in a unitary state, the use of traditional state tax planning strategies (such as intercorporate financing and intellectual property management/licensing) generally provide no state tax benefit in unitary states.
(21) As Albert Breton points out, many of the advantages gained by federal states are in reality advantages of decentralization, and because most unitary states are in fact decentralized, they also gain those advantages.
Whereas unitary states often change policies rapidly, going from high to low inflation and vice versa, decentralized political institutions make a change in macroeconomic policies, whether good or bad, more difficult.
This is a running sore in the case of countries which are federal as opposed to unitary states. West Germany is a prime example, but Italy and Spain have also devolved extensive powers to their regional governments and these can flout EC law with a healthy dose of impunity because the Treaty simply doesn't bind them.
Even in Western European countries, the textbook distinction between federal and unitary states has become more blurred as some formal unitary states respond to pressures from minority nationalisms and local democracy to grant autonomy to ethnic groups occupying particular areas.