Unitary State

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Unitary State

 

In contrast to a federation, which is composed of federative units, such as states or Länder, a unitary state is divided into administrative and territorial units, such as departments, regions, and districts. The unitary state has a single constitution for the entire state, a general system of laws, and a unified system of bodies of state power. These attributes of the unitary state provide the necessary organizational and legal bases for the centralized guidance of social processes and for the maintenance of strong central authority in the state. All socialist states are unitary states, with the exceptions of the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, which are socialist federations.

Most contemporary bourgeois states—including Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan—are unitary states. In contemporary bourgeois federations—such as the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Canada—the processes of economic and political centralization, which are characteristic of the period of statemonopoly capitalism, lead to the dominance of unitary tendencies; in these countries the role and influence of federal bodies of state power are constantly growing.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nigeria operates a unitary system of government falsely disguised as federalism.
Until last year, the president was optimistic that Filipinos would rally behind him as the country shifts to federalism from a unitary system of government.
According to the Marine captain-turned-congressman, the government's intended switch toward a federal system from the current unitary system has lost steam; thus, the Duterte administration is trying to revive it.
Instead, the House of Representatives under the leadership of new Speaker Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo adopted a "Resolution of Both Houses" (RBH 15) proposing a shift to federal form of government which the concom chairman, former chief justice of the Supreme Court Reynato Puno, has branded as nothing but "sham federalism." Puno specifically described said resolution as follows: "What they established is a unitary system without the ban on political dynasties and with unlimited term of office.
Shifting to federalism from a unitary system is among the key campaign promises of Duterte, who promised during the campaign to spread resources and political power to the countryside.
'What they [lawmakers] established is a unitary system without the ban of political dynasties and with unlimited term of office.
The 18th Amendment paved the way for Pakistan to become a proper federation, rather than the centralised unitary system it had been for so long.
'But there is hope for us in this coming midterm elections though not with the unitary system of government but with the new breed of local leadership.
The timing in a unitary system is the opposite--the central government moves second and has the final say on fiscal policy affecting both districts.
Ronald May had this to say on the Philippines: 'For anyone familiar with the history of federal experiments in the latter half of the twentieth century, it is difficult to avoid the impression that the advantages claimed for federal over unitary system read more like statements of faith than reasoned arguments.'
This was just as it insisted that there was no alternative to restructuring Nigeria to a true Federation as against Unitary System of government, giving the dire situation the country had found itself.