United States-Iranian Treaties and Agreements

United States-Iranian Treaties and Agreements

 

signed in 1856, 1943, 1947, 1955, 1959, and 1961. The first of these treaties, the US-Iranian treaty on amity and trade, was signed on Dec. 13, 1856, in Istanbul. It anticipated the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries (established in 1883) and extended to Americans the privileges of the policy of capitulations (abrogated in Iran in 1928). The 1943 Reciprocal Trade Agreement was signed on April 8 in Washington. It established the most-favored-nation treatment in matters of importing goods and in collecting custom duties, taxes, and other fees from American citizens in Iran. The 1947 Agreement Relating to a Military Mission in Iran was signed on October 6 in Tehran. It broadened the powers of the American military mission sent to Iran in 1943. According to the treaty, American officers had the exclusive right to hold high positions in the Iranian army. The Iranian government pledged not to invite military advisers from other countries without the consent of the USA. The agreement has been renewed several times. The 1955 Treaty on Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights was signed on August 15 in Tehran. It secured the most-favored-nation treatment in matters of the rights of American and Iranian citizens and companies and also of trade and consular relations. The treaty replaced the temporary trade agreement and the temporary agreement on personal status and family right (1928). It was concluded for ten years and is to be automatically renewed. The 1959 military agreement was signed on March 5 in Ankara. It provides for military cooperation between the USA and Iran and for US aid to the Iranian government “in case of aggression against Iran.” The treaty’s period of effectiveness is not stated.

The General Agreement for Economic Cooperation of 1961 was signed on December 21 in Tehran. It defines the procedure for US economic and technical aid to Iran and provides for the dispatch of an American economic mission to Iran.

REFERENCES

Motamen-ol-Molk. Recueil des traités de l’empire persan avec les pays étrangers. Tehran, 1908. Pages 15–21.
Hurewitz, J. C. Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East: A Documentary Record: 1535–1914. Toronto and London, [1956].
Paimana hazarqani bein duulata shahinshahie Iran wa duulata kashwarhaa mottakhadaa Amarika. Tehran, 1944.
Attalaat, 1955, August 16–20.
Attalaat, 1959, March 5.
Attalaat, 1961, December 21.

M. S. IVANOV

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