United States-Japanese Treaties and Agreements

United States-Japanese Treaties and Agreements

 

a series of unequal treaties concluded between the USA and Japan from 1951 to 1954. The 1951 security treaty, the basic treaty in the series, was signed on Sept. 8, 1951, in San Francisco. This treaty gives the USA the right to keep its armed forces in Japan and to use them at its discretion for actions in any region of the Far East without consultation with Japan. The treaty was directed against the USSR and the peace-loving countries of Asia. The treaty lapsed on June 23, 1960, when the broader 1960 American-Japanese treaty superseded it. The 1952 administrative agreement was signed on Feb. 28 in Tokyo. According to this agreement, the USA in fact retained the use of all the bases and other military installations on Japanese territory that it had during the open military occupation of Japan (1945–52); the US armed forces could arrive in Japan and leave it at any time and move freely about the country (art. 3). Japan pledged to grant to the American armed forces the free use of military bases, means of communications, and service enterprises, as well as to pay $155 million a year to the USA for the maintenance of its troops in Japan. On June 23, 1960, this agreement was replaced by a new one. The 1953 treaty on friendship, trade, and navigation was signed on Apr. 2 in Tokyo. The treaty established for citizens and companies of each of the contracting parties a “national regime” on the territory of the other party with respect to the participation in various business activities (art. 7). The treaty enabled American capital to penetrate into the Japanese economy. It was concluded for ten years but included the stipulation that its action would extend beyond the period until denounced by one of the two parties. The 1954 mutual defense assistance pact was signed on Mar. 8 in Tokyo. The pact comprises four agreements: on mutual assistance in matters of defense, on purchases, on the guarantee of capital investments, and on economic measures. The Japanese government pledged to develop its defense capabilities and effectively utilize American military aid. The treaties and agreements of 1951–54 maintained Japan’s dependence on the USA that arose after World War II and prepared the American-Japanese military alliance. The 1960 mutual cooperation and security treaty was signed on Jan. 19 in Washington and became effective on June 23, 1960. Japan again granted the USA the right to maintain armed forces and bases on Japanese territory (art. 6). The two parties pledged to step up their military potential through mutual aid (art. 3). The treaty provides for economic cooperation of the two parties. It was concluded for an indefinite period. After ten years each of the parties may notify the other party of its intention to denounce the treaty. In this case the treaty lapses a year after the notification. Simultaneously with the 1960 treaty, the USA and Japan signed an agreement on means for servicing US armed forces in Japan, on the territories they would occupy, and on their status. The agreement repeated the main elements of the 1952 administrative agreement. All the peace-loving forces of the world, including the democratic forces of Japan, viewed the 1960 treaty as a further step toward involving Japan in the American military and strategic system and intensifying tension in the Far East. From 1960 on, there has been a broad popular movement against this treaty in Japan.

REFERENCES

“The American-Japanese Agreement of 1951.” Contemporary Japan, 1951, vol. 20.
“The American-Japanese Agreement of 1952.” Ibid., 1952, vol. 21.
“The American-Japanese Agreement of 1954.” Nippon Times, Mar. 9, 1954.
“Amerikano-Iaponskii dogovor 1960,” Mezhdunarodnaia zhizn’, 1960, no. 4.
“The American-Japanese Agreement of 1960,” The Yomiuri, Jan. 20, 1960.
“Zaiavlenie Sovetskogo pravitel’stva po povodu ‘ratifikatsii’ amerikano-iaponskogo voennogo dogovora.” Pravda, June 30, 1960, no. 182.

I. F. CHERNOV

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