Unix


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Unix

[′yü·niks]
(computer science)
An operating system that was designed for use with microprocessors and with the C programming language, and that has been adopted for use with several 16-bit-microprocessor microcomputers.

Unix

(operating system)
/yoo'niks/ (Or "UNIX", in the authors' words, "A weak pun on Multics") Plural "Unices". An interactive time-sharing operating system invented in 1969 by Ken Thompson after Bell Labs left the Multics project, originally so he could play games on his scavenged PDP-7. Dennis Ritchie, the inventor of C, is considered a co-author of the system.

The turning point in Unix's history came when it was reimplemented almost entirely in C during 1972 - 1974, making it the first source-portable OS. Unix subsequently underwent mutations and expansions at the hands of many different people, resulting in a uniquely flexible and developer-friendly environment.

By 1991, Unix had become the most widely used multi-user general-purpose operating system in the world. Many people consider this the most important victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see Unix weenie and Unix conspiracy for an opposing point of view).

Unix is now offered by many manufacturers and is the subject of an international standardisation effort Unix-like operating systems include AIX, A/UX, BSD, Debian, FreeBSD, GNU, HP-UX, Linux, NetBSD, NEXTSTEP, OpenBSD, OPENSTEP, OSF, POSIX, RISCiX, Solaris, SunOS, System V, Ultrix, USG Unix, Version 7, Xenix.

"Unix" or "UNIX"? Both seem roughly equally popular, perhaps with a historical bias toward the latter. "UNIX" is a registered trademark of The Open Group, however, since it is a name and not an acronym, "Unix" has been adopted in this dictionary except where a larger name includes it in upper case. Since the OS is case-sensitive and exists in many different versions, it is fitting that its name should reflect this.

The UNIX Reference Desk.

Spanish fire extinguisher.

Unix

A multiuser, multitasking operating system that is widely used as the master control program in workstations and servers. The Open Group holds the trademark for the UNIX name (spelled in upper case) on behalf of the industry and provides compliance certification to the UNIX standard (see Single UNIX Specification).

Myriad commercial applications run on Unix servers, and most websites run under Linux, a Unix variant. Over the years, there have been many different Unix versions, and, except for the PC world, where Windows dominates, almost every hardware vendor offers Unix either as its primary or secondary operating system. Sun was singularly instrumental in commercializing Unix with its Solaris OS (formerly SunOS), and HP, IBM, SCO and Digital (before it was acquired by Compaq) were also Unix promoters.

From the Telephone Company
Both Unix and the C programming language were developed by AT&T, dating back to the early 1970s. Unix and C were freely distributed to government and academic institutions, causing it to be ported to a wider variety of machine families than any other operating system. As a result, Unix became synonymous with "open systems" and thrives today on virtually every hardware platform. See AT&T.

Command Lines and GUIs
The Unix OS is made up of the kernel, file system and a shell, which is the command line interface with more than 600 commands for manipulating data and text. The major user interface shells are the original Bourne shell, C shell and Korn shell. Many commands are cryptic, but just as Windows hid the DOS prompt from users, graphical interfaces provide a Windows-like look into Unix and Linux. Linux desktops offer various GUIs, and many pundits claim that Apple created the best GUI for Unix with its OS X operating system, which is also Unix based. See Unix history, Mac OS X and Linux.

Unix Is Everywhere
Unix components are world class standards. The Internet runs on Unix protocols such as TCP/IP for network transfer and SMTP for email. NFS provides file sharing, Kerberos provides network security, and X Window lets users execute programs remotely in a mostly Unix environment. See POSIX, BSD Unix, USENIX and UDI.

Versions of Unix that are compliant with The Open Group's UNIX specifications include Sun's Solaris, HP's HP-UX, IBM's AIX and z/OS and SCO's UnixWare. See Open Group, Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, z/OS, Mac OS X and Linux.

In the following illustrations, notice how many workstations and servers have run and still run under Unix.


Almost All Unix
Except for Windows, all these operating systems are Unix based. This list described the various versions of the Prince PDF converter software from YesLogic Pty. Ltd. (www.princexml.com).


Almost All Unix
Except for Windows, all these operating systems are Unix based. This list described the various versions of the Prince PDF converter software from YesLogic Pty. Ltd. (www.princexml.com).




Almost All Unix
Except for Windows, all these operating systems are Unix based. This list described the various versions of the Prince PDF converter software from YesLogic Pty. Ltd. (www.princexml.com).
References in periodicals archive ?
It is clear that Oracle believes that developing and certifying software on Caldera's Open UNIX will simplify its Linux development, certification and deployment efforts.
Because Compaq is committed to being the industry leader in providing a high level of security in our products, we chose to work with Tripwire as a premier infrastructure integrity provider," said Kent Ferson, vice president of Compaq's UNIX Systems Business Unit.
Compaq's Tru64 UNIX operating system is a leading UNIX platform for enterprise, government and telecommunications customers," said W.
Tripwire for Servers now supports Compaq Tru64 UNIX versions 4.
HP took the number one position in high-end UNIX server revenue, surpassing Sun and IBM and demonstrating the strength and success of the HP Superdome server in comparison with Sun's and IBM's high-end server offerings.
In the entry-level UNIX server category, HP grew its revenue market share by 2.
Open UNIX 8 is one of the most advanced deployment platforms for Intel(R) processor-based industry standard servers, such as market leading Compaq ProLiant(TM) servers, and is the trusted foundation for solutions where proven scalability, reliability and affordability are critical.
Incorporating the Linux Kernel Personality (LKP) technology, Open UNIX 8 enables customers to run Linux and UNIX applications simultaneously with the complete flexibility of Linux and the same scalability and reliability inherent in UNIX systems.
This validation effort helps ensure that customers worldwide can deploy enterprise class software solutions on an operating system that combines the strengths of UNIX and Linux.
Because Oracle9i Database simplifies IT infrastructure, enhances site availability and gives worldwide customers greater control over critical business information, its availability on Open UNIX 8 creates a Linux application in a data center environment with the highest standard of reliability and scalability.
Caldera is the leader in "Unifying UNIX with Linux for Business.
Caldera, OpenLinux, UnixWare, Open UNIX, Caldera Volution and "Unifying UNIX with Linux for Business" are trademarks or registered trademarks of Caldera International Inc.