Upper Guinea


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Guinea, Upper

 

(1) Name of part of the Atlantic coast of Africa between Cap Roxo on the west and the tip of the Bight of Biafra on the east.

(2) Northern Guinea—a natural region of West Africa adjoining the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea on the west and south and bounded on the north by 10°-12° N lat. and on the east by 9°-10° E long. The coasts on the extreme west are broken up into small abraded embayments. In other areas the coasts are mostly leveled abrasion and abrasion-deposit lagoon areas, and in the far east there is delta land (the Niger delta). Mountain massifs, structural plateaus, and elevated socle plains rise above a narrow strip of coastal lowland. Parts of them rise gradually, and other parts rise in steep ledges. They are grouped under the general name Northern Guinea Highlands. Elevations are mostly from 500 to 1,000 m, with the highest elevation 1,948 m (Mount Bintimani). The Northern Guinea Highlands descend gently into the interior of the continent, passing imperceptibly into the plains of the Western Sudan. (Therefore, the northern boundary of Upper Guinea is indefinite.) The Northern Guinea Highlands border on the Adamawa Plateau on the east. The climate is equatorial-monsoon—hot, with humid summers. On the coast east of 10° W long., the climate is similar to the typical equatorial, constantly humid climate.

Upper Guinea has a dense river network. The largest rivers are the Niger (which flows across Upper Guinea in its upper and lower reaches) and the Volta. On the coastal lowlands and windward southern slopes of the massifs and plateaus there are humid evergreen equatorial and deciduous-evergreen sub-equatorial forests on reddish yellow lateritic soils. (Their area has been greatly reduced by logging.) Man-groves are found on the flat, tidal coasts and at the mouths of rivers, especially in the Niger delta. In interior areas, secondary tall-grass savannas on red lateritic soils prevail in place of destroyed forests. The Republic of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Dahomey, Nigeria, and Bissau are located entirely or partly within Upper Guinea.

I. N. OLEINIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
While cocoa production is the main contributor to these countries economies, it is also the biggest driver of tropical deforestation in the Upper Guinea ecosystem of West Africa.
The Atiwa Range Forest Reserve, measuring 23,663 hectares, is part of an ecosystem known as the Upper Guinea Forest.
Children from villages in Middle and Upper Guinea may be more vulnerable to trafficking due to the region's lack of schools and economic opportunities.
The book initially focuses on Africa's connections with the Caribbean, first on Upper Guinea, where the author examines the complex history of highly decentralized societies and the meanings of ethnonyms found in slave trade documents of the Spanish Caribbean, and then on Angola, where he examines the many explanations of why there were so many captive children early in the slave trade from this region.
At that time, cumulative case counts varied substantially across the four natural regions of Guinea (Forest Guinea, Maritime Guinea, Middle Guinea, and Upper Guinea) (Figure); previously intense transmission had been controlled in the Forest Guinea region, but transmission persisted in the Maritime Guinea region (8).
This article examines the way young men in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau, make sense of and engage in the transnational cocaine trade, which has established itself on the Upper Guinea coast.
He received his PhD from the latter at the age of twenty-four, and his thesis on the history of Upper Guinea became a classic of African history.
His take is that Papiamentu emerged in the period 1650-1700 when slaves speaking Upper Guinea Creole (spoken in Guinea-Bissau, Casamance, and Cape Verde) were taken to Curasao.
Jacobs (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Germany) delves into the subject, beginning with a critical review of the literature, which is followed by detailed linguistic analyses (phonology parts of speech, morphology) as well as a survey of historical ties between Upper Guinea and Curacao.
For example, chapter four is titled "The Upper Guinea Coast and Sierra Leone" and chapter six is "Discovery of the Kingdom of Kongo," while chapters eight and eleven are titled "The Slave Trade" and "The Angolan Wars," respectively.
To supply slaves to the rice and cotton plantations in the region, Portugal renewed its interests after 1750 in the Upper Guinea ports of Cacheu and Bissau, granting a trade monopoly to the Company of Grao Para and Maranhao (CGPM) that went into effect in 1755 and ended in 1778.
The country is divided into four geographic regions: a narrow coastal belt (Lower Guinea); the pastoral Fouta Djallon highlands (Middle Guinea); the northern savannah (Upper Guinea); and a southeastern rainforest region (Forest Guinea).

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