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Ural(yo͝or`əl, Rus. o͞oräl`), river, c.1,580 mi (2,540 km) long, rising in the S Urals, flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. Part of the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia, the Ural flows S past Magnitogorsk and Orenburg, then through NW Kazakhstan, past Oral, and into the Caspian Sea at Atyrau. At Magnitogorsk there is a water reservoir which supplies the area's metallurgical industry. The Ural River is a transport route to the north for oil, fish, and lumber; grain and cattle are generally shipped south on the river. It is a source of water supply for the towns and agricultural areas in the steppe area in W Kazakhstan, but overuse of the water has reduced the river's flow along its lower course, and pollution has reduced water quality.
an urban-type settlement in Krasnoiarsk Krai, RSFSR, under the jurisdiction of the Zaozernyi city soviet. Ural is located 12 km south of the railroad station Zaozernaia on the Krasnoiarsk-Taishet line. The Krasnoiarsk Commercial Equipment Plant is located in Ural.
(until 1775, Iaik), a river in the Bashkir ASSR, Cheliabinsk and Orenburg oblasts of the RSFSR, and Ural and Gur’ev oblasts of the Kazakh SSR. The Ural measures 2,428 km in length and drains an area of 231,000 sq km. It originates in the Uraltau Range of the Southern Urals and flows into the Caspian Sea near the city of Gur’ev.
In its upper course the Ural is a mountain river. It flows into the Iaik Marsh, after which its valley alternately narrows and broadens to as much as 5 km. Below Verkhneural’sk it is a plains river. At Magnitogorsk and lower, the river is bounded by rocky banks. It bends sharply to the west below Orsk and crosses the Guberlia Mountains, forming a gorge that measures 45 km in length. The valley gradually broadens, reaching tens of kilometers in width at Ural’sk. From Ural’sk it flows southward in a broad valley with numerous oxbows, channels, and lakes. At its mouth the Ural divides into two branches—the Iaitskii and the Zolotoi, which is navigable.
The Ural is fed primarily by snow. Spring high water occurs from late March to early April in the lower course and approximately from the middle of the second week of April to June in the upper course. There is minor flooding in the upper course in the summer and fall, and a stable low water level for the remainder of the year. During high water the river overflows its banks in the middle course and exceeds 10 km in width, broadening in the delta to tens of kilometers. The highest water levels occur in late April in the upper course and in early May in the lower course. The range of fluctuation of the water level is 3–4 m in the upper course, 9–10 m in the middle and lower courses, and 3 m in the delta. The mean flow rate is 104 cu m per sec at Orenburg and 400 cu m per sec at the village of Kushum; the corresponding maximums are 12,100 and 14,000 cu m per sec, and the minimums are 1.62 and 13.2 cu m per sec. Eighty percent of the runoff occurs in the spring. The average ratio of suspended matter to water is 280 g per cu m at Orenburg and 290 g per cu m at Kushum.
The Ural freezes over in early November in the upper course and in late November in the middle and lower courses. The ice breaks up in late March in the lower course and in early April in the upper course. The period of ice drift is short, and ice jams are common.
The largest tributaries are the Sakmara on the right and the Or’ and Ilek on the left. The Olenti, Kaldygaity, and Uil rivers disappear through seepage loss in the Caspian Lowland without reaching the Ural.
In the upper course, the Ural is used to supply water to industrial enterprises, for example, the Magnitogorsk and Orsk-Khalilovo metallurgical combines, and to cities; water from the lower course is used for irrigation. There are two reservoirs near Magnitogorsk—the Iriklinskii Hydroelectric Power-Plant and Reservoir near the settlement of Iriklinskii, and the Kushum Canal and Reservoir below Ural’sk. The river is navigable from Ural’sk to Gur’ev. Fish of commercial importance include sturgeons of the genus Acispenser, especially stellate sturgeon (A stellatus), and also pike perch, herring, European bream, carp, and European catfish. The cities of Verkhneural’sk, Magnitogorsk, Orsk, Novotroitsk, Orenburg, Ural’sk and Gur’ev are situated on the river.
I. M. KISIN
the name of a series of Soviet general-purpose digital computers, designed for scientific and technical applications and for problem solving in planning and economics. The first computers in the series (URAL, URAL-2, URAL-3, and URAL-4) used vacuum tubes; later models (URAL-11, URAL-14, and URAL-16) used semiconductor devices.
The first URAL computer (1955) was classified as a small digital computer on the basis of its specifications and was designed primarily for engineering applications. It featured a well-developed system of commands, a system for signaling and manual control that allowed the correction of programs during debugging, control of computation, and, if necessary, intervention in the execution of a program. In the URAL-2, URAL-3, and URAL-4 models, the memory devices were improved, and the set of input-output devices was significantly expanded. A series of program- and equipment-compatible models with various output capabilities were produced between 1964 and 1967, based on a single design for equipment and circuitry. These machines—the URAL-11, URAL-14, and URAL-16—have a flexible block structure and allow the assembly of systems comprising several computers. Their design makes provision for equipment redundancy and features a system of memory protection and a developed system of interrupts and halts.
Software for the later Ural models is based on a universal supervisory program that fulfills the functions of an operating system. The software system also includes the ARMU assembly language, which ensures full program compatibility with earlier and later models. The program library consists of programs written in ARMU, ALGOL-60, Algams, and Algek.
REFERENCESBurakov, M. V. Opyt ekspluatatsii tsifrovoi vychislitel’noi mashiny “Ural.” Moscow, 1962.
Apokin, I. A. and L. E. Maistrov. Razvitie vychislitel’nykh mashin. Moscow, 1974.
the first legal Social Democratic newspaper in the Tatar language. Ural was published in Orenburg from Jan. 4 (17) through Apr. 27 (May 10), 1907. A total of 31 issues appeared, with a circulation of 4,000. The organizer and de facto manager was Kh. M. Iamashev, who founded the newpaper with the support of the Urals oblast committee and the Ufa committee of the RSDLP. Ural supported Bolshevik policies in regard to the basic questions of the Revolution of 1905–07, exposed bourgeois nationalists, and educated the masses in the spirit of internationalism.
V. I. Lenin’s article “Whom to Elect to the State Duma?” was published in the second issue of Ural under the title “There Are Three Chief Parties in Russia.” A series of five pamphlets was published as a supplement to the newpaper: What Does the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party Seek to Obtain for the Peasants?, Who Needs the Oppressions of Various Nationalities?, Our Immediate Tasks and Ultimate Goal, The Liberation of the Workers Should Be the Business of the Workers Themselves, and On Universal Suffrage.
On Apr. 27 (May 10), 1907, Ural was banned by the tsarist authorities. The newspaper played a significant role in developing class consciousness among the Tatar and Bashkir peoples.
REFERENCESBol’shevistskaia gazeta “Ural.” Kazan, 1967.
Aleev, S. “Ural” gazetahï. Ufa, 1970.