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After discussing some of these unexamined presuppositions, this paper will oppose them with the views of the so-called founding father of the Crusades, Pope Urban II. Because Urban died on 29 July 1099 before learning of the conquest of Jerusalem two weeks earlier, his interpretation of the Crusades is able to avoid the problem of anachronism, of judging all prior crusading from the standpoint of the greatest crusading triumph in the eleventh century.
He claims its was Pope Urban II's preaching against the Saracen 'Anti Christ' that persuaded peace loving Christians to join what Asbridge claims was nothing more than a medieval jihad.
First Minister Rhodri Morgan was in Brussels to see Michel Barnier, European Commissioner for regional policy, formally launch the initiative - the only Urban II programme in Wales.
In 1090 Urban II summoned his old master to be his adviser in Rome, where the reluctant Bruno lived disconsolately in the ruined Baths of Diocletian.
FIVE hundred years after Islam appeared, Pope Urban II launched the Crusades, in November 1095, to claim land in the Middle East from Muslims.
Wrexham council bosses secured pounds 1.2m to finish of the West Urban II European community initiative.
The European Commission approved on January 25 urban regeneration programmes in four Member States in the framework of the URBAN II Community Initiative.
The Reconciliation Walk was launched last November in Clermont-Ferrand, France, 900 years to the day after Pope Urban II summoned Christendom to war.
The EU URBAN II programme has set aside pounds 6.6m for match funding programmes to help regenerate employment in West Wrexham.
The European Commission approved three urban regeneration programmes in Greece under the URBAN II Community Initiative (2000-2006) on January 24.
Money has been provided under the West Wrexham Urban II programme.

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