Urban II


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Urban II,

c.1042–1099, pope (1088–99), a Frenchman named Odo (or Eudes) of Lagery; successor of Victor III. He studied at Reims and became a monk at Cluny. He went to Rome, as prior of Cluny, early in the reign of St. Gregory VII. The pope kept him there, finding in Odo one of his ablest assistants in the great reform; he made him cardinal and bishop of Ostia. Odo worked especially as legate in Germany. When he was elected pope, Urban pursued the cause of reform, undaunted by the opposition of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and his antipope, Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna). He began work in the lands that recognized him, those of the Normans (S Italy), of the Countess Matilda (Tuscany), and the Lombard cities. He could not stay in Rome until 1093, when the antipope was expelled. Urban's method was to travel about, summoning great councils of the whole population, to advertise and gain popularity for the reforms. The principal councils were at Piacenza (Mar., 1095), Clermont (Nov., 1095), Rome (1097), Bari (1098), and Rome again (1099). At Clermont, Urban preached a sermon that brought forth the First Crusade (see CrusadesCrusades
, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First Crusade
Origins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar.
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). At Bari the reunion of East and West was the theme; St. Anselm was the apologist for the West. Urban's resolute condemnation of Philip I of France in the matter of Philip's repudiation of his wife exemplifies his fearlessness. Without Urban's work, most of Gregory's reform movement would probably have been ephemeral. He was succeeded by Paschal II. Urban was beatified in 1881.

Bibliography

See study by F. J. Gossman (1960).

Urban II

 

(Odo of Lagery, Odo of Châtillon-sur-Marne). Born circa 1042, in Lagery, France; died July 29, 1099, in Rome. Pope (1088–99).

Urban II continued the ecclesiastical and political policies of Pope Gregory VII. In Italy he waged a successful struggle against Emperor Henry IV and his ally, the antipope Clement III, who had strengthened his position in Rome with the emperor’s help. Urban II returned to Rome and secured his hold on the papacy decisively in 1094 after forcing Clement III out of the city. Urban II proclaimed the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

Urban II

original name Odo or Udo. ?1042--99, French ecclesiastic; pope (1088--99). He inaugurated the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont (1095)
References in periodicals archive ?
After discussing some of these unexamined presuppositions, this paper will oppose them with the views of the so-called founding father of the Crusades, Pope Urban II.
The Council of Clermont followed, during which Urban II called upon the Franks to overcome their differences and unite to retake Jerusalem from the "unclean races" that were now occupying it.
Urban II propose de miser sur des partenariats capables d'intervenir au sein des villes pour favoriser la revitalisation sociale et economique des milieux de facon durable.
In 1095, Pope Urban II suggested a crusade against Islam.
The conference, named the URBAN II programme, is at the Glebe Centre, Murton, this weekend.
Similarly, Robert's itinerant lifestyle was justified by the commission he received, in 1096, from Pope Urban II to go out and preach.
O On Ash Wednesday, the Catholic community gathers and processes forward after the homily to be signed with ashes, a custom that goes back to 1091 when Pope Urban II ordered the faithful to accept ashes as a sign of penance.
In dealing with the church, he was successful in obtaining an apostolic legation from Urban II, allowing him and his heirs to construct a national church in Sicily.
Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades a holy war against Muslims.
After Muslims conquered Asia Minor (modern Turkey), vastly reducing the extent of the Byzantine Empire, Pope Urban II convened the Council of Clermont in 1095 to rally "the knights of Christendom.

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