The haphazard, poorly planned urban reconstruction
coupled with the 10-fold jump in population to nearly 12 million today has severely strained the city's ability to cope with flooding.
Organised jointly by USAID and the Kabul Urban Reconstruction
Project of the Ministry of Urban Development Affairs, the workshop is addressing the issues that affect the growth, security, and development of Afghanistan's urban centers.
By the end of the urban reconstruction
program, 85 percent of the Old City will have been demolished.
The agreement on urban reconstruction
and regeneration provides for Abruzzo to set up an urban development fund within the existing EU framework for the use of the Structural Funds (Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas - JESSICA).
Two major reconstruction programmes, the Baghdad water supply and sanitation project, and the water supply, sanitation and urban reconstruction
project, were launched on the back of the report to address the country's most pressing needs.
But simultaneous and complete urban reconstruction
Compared with dowdy London in the 1960s or decaying New York, Montreal provided a vision of urban reconstruction
inspired largely by CIAM principles.
In the initial period of mainly conservative urban reconstruction
(1945-1958), the Third Reich's visible traces were effaced via the stylistic return of the city's architecture to an imagined pre-Nazi traditionalism, as the surviving Nazi buildings and monuments were either refitted or demolished and a reassuring antecedent neoclassicism reclaimed.
The FDR technique has been primarily used on rural roads; however, it is increasingly being selected as an option for urban reconstruction
projects as well.
With support provided by the postapartheid government, the Open Society Institute, and other international and domestic donors the National Urban Reconstruction
and Housing Agency (Nurcha) has been able to contribute to the construction of 70,000 houses (from February 2001) in South Africa's campaign to house the nation.
Carter shows, for example, that the urban reconstruction
of West Berlin was guided by a use of public space "designed precisely to stimulate the material appetites of passing shoppers" (p.
The papers provide a comprehensive examination of the institutional and multi disciplinary aspects of rural and urban reconstruction
. Apart from being a vital accompaniment to the urbanisation programme that is currently underway, they make an invaluable contribution to the future by providing detailed guidelines for institution building, and for the creation of structures, policies and infrastructures.