more advanced educational institutions for children of the urban petite bourgeoisie and white-collar workers that first appeared in Western Europe in the 17th century.
In Russia boys’ urban schools were established by the statute of May 31, 1872, based on district schools with six years of instruction; children of well-to-do peasants could also attend the schools. The subjects taught were scripture, reading and writing, Russian language, reading Church Slavonic, arithmetic, practical geometry, geography, national and world history, natural history, drafting, drawing, and gymnastics, as well as several skills and trades (woodworking and metalworking).
The urban schools charged tuition fees, the amount being set by the inspector of public schools in accordance with local conditions and approved by the school-district superin-tendant. Graduates of the urban schools had limited eligibility to continue their education. They could enroll only in the lower vocational schools or the one- and two-year teacher-training programs that were attached to some of the urban schools. These programs prepared them to teach in primary schools and to enroll in a teachers college. In 1912 the urban schools were reorganized into higher primary schools.
M. F. SHCHABAEVA