Whereas the outdoor thermal comfort strategy include shading pedestrian connections through the provision of climate, controlled conditioned corridors, colonnades and the use of shading devices for the primary pedestrian routes, shading priority areas in the public realm including open spaces (public plazas), community parks, entrances to community facilities (including schools) and transit stops and reducing urban heat island effect
through the use of high albedo (the fraction of Sun's radiation reflected from a surface) surfaces and a cool material palette.
Previous studies, carried out by NOAA, NASA, and the Hadley Center, also found that land warming was approximately 1AC since the mid-1950s, and that the urban heat island effect
and poor station quality did not bias the results.
Fractal Analysis of Satellite-Detected Urban Heat Island Effect
, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 69(5), 555-566.
The intention of thermal mapping is to understand and map the prevalence of urban heat island effect
The urban heat island effect
can be mitigated simply by introducing enough green roofs and plants in cities.
Cities full of blacktop and dark roofs that absorb sunlight experience an urban heat island effect
He notes that while the roof of the Bio-Wheels building is white, the black asphalt of the parking lot contributes to art urban heat island effect
and increases the cooling load of the building.
The most commonly cited benefits of green roofs are their ability to control stormwater runoff, which can improve water quality in surrounding streams, and reduce the increased temperatures in metropolitan areas, known as the urban heat island effect
Most significant of all, the IPPC 2001 report, on page 106, carries the following summary of many scientists who have studied the urban heat island effect
in detail and whose work appears in the refereed literature.
A pair of introductory chapters examines green roofs in the context of urban design and as a solution to such environmental challenges as the urban heat island effect
, stormwater runoff pollution, resource use, disappearance of native species, and human health.
Cities are interested in this technology not only because it reuses water that would otherwise have to be treated but also because it reduces the urban heat island effect
, which is caused when black roofs absorb heat and light.
Their potential to reduce the urban heat island effect
has also been recognized.