Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

Urea-Formaldehyde Resins


products of the reaction of urea with formaldehyde, which may be converted into cross-linked polymers in subsequent reactions.

The reaction of urea with formaldehyde takes place in a number of steps. Products that form at each step of the overall reaction may be capable of further conversions (methylol ureas) or incapable of entering further reactions (methylene ureas, which are reaction waste products), depending on the ratio of the reagents and the reaction conditions (the pH of the reaction mixture and the temperature). In practice, the synthesis of ureaformaldehyde resins is conducted in such a way as to completely eliminate the possibility of formation of methylene urea.

The molar ratio of urea to formaldehyde is usually 1 : 1.3 to 1 : 1.8. A temperature in the 30°-50°C range or the 70°-120°C range is selected for the preparation process, depending on the intended use of the resin (in the first case, as a binder for molding powder; in the second, as a binder for laminated plastics). The reaction begins in a neutral or weakly alkaline medium at pH 7–8 and ends in an acidic medium (pH 3–6.5). Buffer systems are introduced into the reaction vessel to stabilize the pH.

Urea-formaldehyde resins are produced as aqueous solutions. The resins are modified by partial esterification with various alcohols or by substitution of melamine or phenol for some of the urea to make them soluble in organic solvents, to improve their compatibility with other components of glues and enamels, and to increase the moisture resistance of articles made of the resins. Modified urea-formaldehyde resins are produced as alcohol solutions.

Urea-formaldehyde resins are used in the production of amino-plasts, glues (carbamide glue), and foams (mipora). Modified urea-formaldehyde resins are added to alkyd varnishes and enamels to give them greater hardness and luster and to improve their air-resistance.


Teknologiia plasticheskikh mass. Edited by V. V. Korshak. Moscow, 1972. Page 346.
Entsiklopediia polimerov, vol. 2. Moscow, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
Surface coatings of melamine-modified urea-formaldehyde resins (MUFs) containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP) have been shown to significantly improve the fire retardancy of wood by prolonging the ignition time and reducing the heat release rate, total heat released, and mass loss rate.
Urea is a high analysis nitrogen fertiliser and a feedstock for producing UAN and urea-formaldehyde resins.
6] studied the addition of poly vinyl acetals (PVAL) and polyvinyl acetates (PVAC) as a preventing agent of the agglomerating of powdered urea-formaldehyde resins.
Minopouloua, E, Dessiprib, E, Chryssikos, GD, "Use of NIR for Structural Characterization of Urea-Formaldehyde Resins.
Since the 1940s, adhesive products used to make wood products contained cancer-causing chemicals, such as phenolformaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resins.
Examination of selected synthesis parameters for typical wood adhesive-type urea-formaldehyde resins by [sup.
All the properties of the low viscosity urea-formaldehyde resins were much lower than those of the conventional types.
Urea-formaldehyde resins are used as adhesives in materials such as hardwood plywood, particleboard, and medium-density fiberboard (MDF).
There is less pressure to convert exterior-grade wood products because they use phenol-formaldehyde resins, which offgas formaldehyde at a much lower rate than the urea-formaldehyde resins.
It was the first company to patent urea-formaldehyde resins in 1924 and produced the world's first white commercial moulding powder in 1926.
It also happens to make a very cost-efficient, strong glue; urea-formaldehyde resins are widely used in the manufacture of particleboard, medium density fiberboard, plywood and other engineered woods.