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Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
--Renal graft: ischemia time, [greater than or equal to] 2 graft arteries, [greater than or equal to]2 graft veins, ureteral duplication, ureteral implant technique, ureteral stent use, surgical bleeding, surgical time, time to stent withdrawal, ureteral stenosis diagnostic method, time to ureteral stenosis development, treatment type (surgical, endoscopic, interventional).
Characteristics of cases with graft ureteral stenosis
Compared with the total flow rates in the different stented ureters with no stenosis, the total flow rates in a ureteral stenosis were smaller because of the 75% reduction in ureter inner space, which decreased the extraluminal flow rates.
The total flow rate in the tubular ureter with a ureteral stenosis was less than the total flow rate in the funnelshaped ureter with a ureteral stenosis.
Laparoscopic and robotic ureteral stenosis repair: a multiinstitutional experience with a long-term follow-up.
Procedural complications were pain and problems related to ureteral stents (3.2%), urinary tract symptoms (1.4%), ureteral perforations (1.2%), damage caused by laser and guide-wires (0.3%) and atrophic kidney which developed secondary to ureteral stenosis (0.1%).
The most frequently seen major complications were ureteral perforation and avulsion and development of ureteral stenosis in the long term.
During his routinely endoscopic follow-up in December 2011, right distal ureteral stenosis was discovered after the failure to insert a ureteral access sheath and a double J ureteral stent was placed in the right ureter.