Urogenital System


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urogenital system

[¦yu̇r·ə¦jen·əd·əl ‚sis·təm]
(anatomy)
The combined urinary and genital system in vertebrates, which are intimately related embryologically and anatomically. Also known as genitourinary system.

Urogenital System

 

the aggregation of anatomically and functionally related organs of excretion and reproduction in animals and man.

Invertebrates. The interconnection of excretory and reproductive organs is achieved in various ways in the invertebrates. In acanthocephalans and priapulids, the excretory organs are called protonephridia; these open into the ducts of the gonads. In most polychaetes, in echiurids, and in sipunculids and brachiopods, the gonaducts retain their basic function but fuse with the excretory organs, which thus take on the additional function of transporting the reproductive products. In certain polychaetes, the excretory organs are called metanephridia; these structures serve to transport reproductive products, while the primary gonaducts, called coelomoducts, partially perform an excretory function. In many mollusks, the sole function of the primary gonaducts is to excrete waste products; the secondary ducts of the gonads serve to transport the reproductive products.

Vertebrates. Ova and sperm pass through the ducts of the excretory organs in all vertebrates, including humans. In female animals and in women, the ova are conveyed through the oviducts, which derive from the müllerian duct. In most male fish and in all amphibians, reproductive products are transported through the Wolffian duct, which is usually the ureter as well. In male reptiles, birds, mammals, and men, the primitive kidney, or mesonephros, is transformed into the epididymis and serves to secrete semen; the Wolffian duct is transformed into the deferent duct. The secondary kidney, or metanephros, together with the ureter, which extends from the metanephros, are the essential constituents of the excretory system in amniotes and humans.

REFERENCES

Dogel’, V. A. Sravnitel’naia anatomiia bespozvonochnykh, part 1. Leningrad, 1938.
Beklemishev, V. N. Osnovy sravnitel’noi anatomii bespozvonochnykh, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Moscow, 1964.
Shmal’gauzen, I. I. Osnovy sravnitel’noi anatomii pozvonochnykh zhivotnykh, 4th ed. Moscow, 1947.

A. V. IVANOV

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At the time of gonadal differentiation, male and female embryos have indistinguishable urogenital systems consisting of a set of two ducts (Figure 4-10).
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This tumour is generally rare in the urogenital system, and except for the kidney, other sites include the bladder, the prostate and the spermatic cord (Argyropoulos et al.; Baumgartner et al., 1976; Chen, 1987; Siemens et al., 1998).
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The most frequently encountered anomalies are those of skeleton-musculature, digestive and central nervous systems, whereas disorders of urogenital system, eyes and skin occur less frequently.
It reveals total absence of urogenital system. Liver and spleen appears to be normal.
In the normal embryologic development of the urogenital system, the cranial part of the urogenital sinus is continuous with the allantois, developing into the bladder and pelvic urethra; the bladder dome, posterior walls and part of lateral walls, normally arise from surrounding urogenital sinus mesenchyme.[sup.16] In recent investigation of embryonic development of bladder, Shapiro and colleagues described that bladder morphogenesis is regulated by complex epithelial-mesenchymal signalling events.[sup.17] Failure of these signalling events to occur at specified times result in bladder anomalies.
The 13-hour surgery on Thursday to part the twins' lower abdomen, pelvis, fused urogenital system and lower back was carried out by a team of experts in anaesthesia, urology, orthopaedics, paediatrics, plastic surgery and nursing.