Urquiza, Justo José de

Urquiza, Justo José de

(ho͞o`stō hōsā` thā o͞orkē`sä), 1801–70, Argentine general and politician, president of the confederation (1854–60). As the caudillo of Entre Ríos prov., he helped sustain the power of Juan Manuel de RosasRosas, Juan Manuel de
, 1793–1877, Argentine dictator, governor of Buenos Aires prov. (1829–32, 1835–52). As a boy he served under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders of the Rio de la Plata (1806–7).
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. In 1851, resentful of the economic and political dominance of Buenos Aires, he revolted against his chief. Supported by Brazil and the Uruguayan liberals, he forced Manuel OribeOribe, Manuel
, d. 1857, president of Uruguay (1834–38). After serving with José Gervasio Artigas, he became one of the Thirty-three Immortals who raised the standard of independence under Juan Lavalleja.
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 to capitulate, ending the long siege of Montevideo (Oct., 1851), and defeated Rosas at Monte Caseros (Feb. 3, 1852). Urquiza immediately began the task of national organization. He became provisional director of the Argentine confederation in May, 1852. A constituent assembly adopted (1853) a constitution based primarily on the ideas of J. B. AlberdiAlberdi, Juan Bautista
, 1810–84, Argentine political philosopher, patriot, and diplomat. He opposed Juan Manuel de Rosas, and after 1838 he spent years of exile in Uruguay, Chile, and in Europe writing against Rosas.
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, and Urquiza was inaugurated president in Mar., 1854. In his administration foreign relations were improved, public education was encouraged, colonization was promoted, and plans for railroad construction were initiated. His work of national organization was, however, hindered by the opposition of Buenos Aires prov, which seceded from the confederation. Open war broke out in 1859. Urquiza defeated at Cepeda the provincial army led by Bartolomé MitreMitre, Bartolomé
, 1821–1906, Argentine statesman, general, and author, president of the republic (1862–68). An opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he was forced into exile and had a colorful career as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, and
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 (Oct., 1859), and Buenos Aires agreed to reenter the confederation. Constitutional amendments proposed by Buenos Aires were adopted in 1860. The settlement was short-lived, and further difficulties culminated in civil war. Urquiza met the army of Buenos Aires, again led by Mitre, at Pavón (Sept., 1861). The battle was indecisive, but Urquiza withdrew from the field, leaving the victory with Mitre. He retired to Entre Ríos, where he ruled with patriarchal autocracy until his assassination.
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