The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the ruins of an early medieval city (identified with the city of Varachan of written records) near the village of Ullubiia, Leninskii Raion, Dagestan ASSR. Excavations conducted between 1960 and 1964 under the direction of V. G. Kotovich revealed a citadel surrounded by a stone wall with 11 towers, various quarters with stone dwellings and religious buildings, and a necropolis with flat-grave burials and stone burial vaults. Also found were traces of roads leading into the city from all directions, including the direction of Derbent. The fortified town, which occupied an area of approximately 40 hectares, was adjoined by an agricultural area of about 200 hectares, also surrounded by stone walls.

The city was first settled in the early Iron Age (seventh to fourth centuries B.C.). In the fourth to eighth centuries A.D., it was an important trade, political, and artisan center on the Caspian Sea route. The city was destroyed in the eighth century, probably by Arab invaders.


Kotovich, V. G. “O mestopolozhenii rannesrednevekovykh gorodov Varachana, Belendzhera i Targu.” In the collection Drevnosti Dagestana. Makhachkala, 1974.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.