The other compounds such as salazinic acid, gyrophoric acid, sekikaic acid, usnic
acid, methyl haematommate, orsellinic acid, lobaric acid, and divaricatic acid have also been reported for both antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials.
In recent years there has been a breakthrough in the number of scientific researches to demonstrate the effectiveness of the various biological activities attributed to usnic
acid (Figure 1).
With the exception of usnic
acid, atranorin, physodic acid and perlatolic acid showed no difference in
granarius of extract and two secondary metabolites (diffractaic acid and usnic
acid) of a lichen species, Usnea longissima Arc.
Although the cytotoxicity of usnic
acid have been extensively reviewed (Muller, 2001; Cocchietto et al., 2002; Ingolfsdottir, 2002) there is no data regarding the effects of usnic
acid on microtubules.
and Kivanc, M., 2004, The antimicrobial activity of extract of the lichen Cladonia foliaceaandits (-) Usnic
acid, atranorin and fumarprotocetraic acid constituents.
And still others--ephedra, usnic
acid, kava--can be dangerous.
Deglaze includes an antibacterial cleanser containing balsam and usnic
acid; a camphor-, clove- and peppermint-containing toner; a clay based mask; Crude Control hydrating emulsion; Dissector drying lotion in regular or tinted formulas and Matt Velvet Dust, a powder for oily and problem skin.
In addition, usnic
acid--obtained from species belonging to several genera (such as Usnea, Cetraria, Cladonia, and Parmelia)--promises to be useful in antibiotic salves, herbicides, and deodorants.
The cupped, greenish yellow podetia containing usnic
acid and the red apothecia and pycnidia are diagnostic.
However, the latter species deviates from its closest relative only by its cortical chemistry, atra norin being replaced by usnic
Among the known constituents of usnea are usnic
acid, protolichesterinic acid, and oreinol derivatives.