Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Utah, indigenous people of North America
Utah, state, United States
Utah (yo͞oˈtäˌ), Rocky Mt. state of the W United States. It is bordered by Idaho and Wyoming (N), Colorado (E), Arizona (S), and Nevada (W), and touches New Mexico in the SE, at the Four Corners.
Facts and Figures
Utah has two dissimilar regions sharply divided by the Wasatch Range (part of the Rocky Mts.), which runs generally south from the Idaho border. To the east of the Wasatch rise high mountains and irregular plateaus; along its western foothills lie the major cities of Utah, while farther west is the Great Basin. In the northeast the snowcapped Uinta Mts. reach the state's highest elevation in Kings Peak (13,528 ft/4,123 m). The dissected Colorado Plateau stretches southward, rugged and largely uninhabitable except in isolated river valleys. Deep, tortuous canyons cut by the Colorado River and its tributaries impede travel but create vistas of remarkable grandeur.
Western Utah, part of the Great Basin, was once submerged beneath an extensive Pleistocene lake, Lake Bonneville. For many thousands of years the water level in the lake fluctuated, finally subsiding entirely to leave behind a salt-strewn desert, wide expanses of arid but nonalkaline soil, and a series of lakes. Great Salt Lake, the largest of these, has through evaporation reached a concentration of mineral salts several times that of the ocean. Gulls, pelicans, and blue herons are found around the lake and on its islands. Much of the lake shore is bordered by mud and salt flats. The haze-covered Oquirrh Mts., rising south of the lake, dip to form pleasant beaches at the water's edge, then emerge as islands within the lake and rise again in the Promontory Mts. on the northern shore.
Utah Lake, to the south, is the largest natural body of freshwater in the state and drains into Great Salt Lake through the Jordan River. Between Great Salt Lake and the Wasatch Range and curving southwest toward the Arizona line is the river-crossed Wasatch Front, an agricultural strip that is the center of the life of Utah. Major cities are situated on terraces left by Lake Bonneville.
Irrigation of the rich but arid land has long been crucial to Utah's agricultural development. Major reclamation projects, such as the Weber River, Weber River Basin, Moon Lake, and Strawberry Valley projects, assist numerous private enterprises in storing water for distribution and in aiding flood control. The Central Utah project carries water from streams in the Uinta Mts. through a vast complex of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, canals, and aqueducts across the Wasatch Range to the Salt Lake valley. Lake Powell, the reservoir of Glen Canyon Dam just beyond the Arizona line, and Flaming Gorge Dam are important parts of the Colorado River storage project in Utah.
The state's unusual geologic history has produced many natural wonders, most notably Great Salt Lake and the spectacular Bryce Canyon and Zion national parks. Other attractions are Canyonlands and Arches, national parks; Bears Ears, Cedar Breaks, Dinosaur, Grand Staircase–Escalante, Hovenweep, Natural Bridges, Rainbow Bridge, and Timpanogos Cave national monuments; Glen Canyon National Recreation Area; and Golden Spike National Historical Park (see National Parks and Monuments, table). The Bonneville Salt Flats are famous as an automotive speedway. There are many national forests and a number of Native American reservations. Capitol Reef National Park contains ancient cliff dwellings (see cliff dwellers), glyphs, and other prehistoric artifacts.
Salt Lake City is the capital and largest city; it is also the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), which founded the state and to a large extent still dominates it. Other important cities are Ogden and Provo.
Cultivated land, including isolated farms in river valleys and considerable dry-farming acreage, is limited to a small percentage of the state's total area. Major crops are hay, corn, barley, and wheat, but the bulk of income from agriculture comes from livestock and livestock products, including sheep, cattle, dairying, and an expanding poultry industry. Abundant sunshine provides some compensation for inadequate rainfall, and the climate is generally moderate, allowing for substantial fruit production. Agrarian life was well suited to the principles of the Mormon settlers; moreover, they hoped that the difficulties of successfully farming the dry land would discourage non-Mormons from settling in the area.
The development of nonagricultural resources was more or less frowned upon by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and, in general, was initiated by non-Mormons. However, a wealth of minerals made mineral exploitation almost inevitable and, in turn, stimulated the construction of railroads. Today many residents are engaged in mining or mining-related industries. Copper is the chief metal, followed by gold, molybdenum, and magnesium. Other important mineral products include beryllium, asphalt, silver, lead, tin, fluorspar, mercury, vanadium, potassium salts, manganiferous ore, and uranium.
For many years high freight rates and the long distances to major markets, together with a Mormon distrust of industrialization, tended to discourage manufacturing. However, the establishment of defense plants and military installations during World War II spurred phenomenal industrial growth. The proximity of high-grade iron, coal, and limestone made Provo a steel center. Industrial plants extend from Provo to Brigham City, with the largest concentration in the Salt Lake City area. Utah is now a center for aerospace research and the production of missiles, spacecraft, computer hardware and software, electronic systems, and related items. Other major manufactures are processed foods, machinery, fabricated metals, and petroleum products.
Tourism has become increasingly important to the state's economy. In addition to the five national parks and seven national monuments, ski resorts, particularly in the Wasatch Range, are popular destinations. Since 1984, Park City has hosted the annual Sundance Film Festival.
Government and Higher Education
Utah still operates under its first constitution, adopted in 1895 and effective with statehood in 1896. The executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. Utah's legislature has a senate with 29 members and a house of representatives with 75 members. The state sends two senators and four representatives to the U.S. Congress and has six electoral votes. State politics are solidly Republican.
Utah's leading institutions of higher learning include Brigham Young Univ., at Provo; Southern Utah Univ., at Cedar City; the Univ. of Utah, at Salt Lake City; Utah State Univ., at Logan; and Weber State Univ., at Ogden.
Spanish Exploration and Possession
Mountain Men and Wagon Trains
In the 1820s the mountain men, in search of rich beaver streams, made their way over the difficult terrain, thoroughly exploring the region. The discovery of Great Salt Lake is generally credited to James Bridger, but Étienne Provot, Jedediah S. Smith, and others also have claims. The Canadian fur trader Peter Skene Ogden led four expeditions into the Snake River area; he and his explorations are commemorated in the name of one of Utah's leading cities. Between 1824 and 1830 the riches in furs were exhausted, and a decade was to pass before the arrival of the next transients—westward-bound emigrants.
In 1841 the first California-bound group of emigrants, usually called the Bidwell party, left the Oregon Trail and made its way across the Great Salt Lake Desert. Several years later Miles Goodyear became Utah's first settler when he set up a trading post at the site of present-day Ogden, naming it Fort Buenaventura. The ill-fated Donner Party broke trail over the difficult mountains E of Great Salt Lake in 1846 and proceeded in their tragic journey westward across the desert.
Mormon Settlement and Territorial Status
Permanent settlement began in 1847 with the arrival of the first of the hosts of persecuted Mormons, seeking a “gathering place for Israel” in some undesired and isolated spot. It is said that when Brigham Young, their leader, surmounted the Wasatch Range and looked out over the green Great Salt Lake valley, he knew that the place had been found. On July 24, 1847, now celebrated as Pioneer Day, he entered the valley. Young was to prove himself one of the greatest administrators and leaders in 19th-century America. Under his direction and in communal fashion the ground was plowed and planted, the Temple foundation was laid, and Salt Lake City was platted directly on compass lines.
Gradually the Latter-Day Saints assembled, their ranks swelled by streams of emigrants from the United States and abroad (particularly Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries). More and more of the arid land yielded to their pioneering irrigation. In the next 50 years they not only had to learn the techniques of wresting a living from the desert, of combating frequent invasions of grasshoppers, and confronting the Native Americans, but they also had to face opposition from the federal government. In 1850 a large area, of which the present state was a part, was constituted Utah Territory and Young was appointed governor. The name Deseret [honeybee], chosen by the Mormons, was discarded, but the beehive remains a ubiquitous symbol of Mormon activity throughout Utah.
Friction with Native Americans and the U.S. Government
The Native Americans, dispossessed of their lands and foreseeing further encroachment, became embittered, and the Mormons were threatened by the powerful Ute. The confrontation eventually lead to the Walker War (1853–54) and the Black Hawk War (1865–68). There were also conflicts between the Mormons and the California-bound immigrants, but the real trouble came with the gradual disintegration of relations between the Mormons and the federal government. Numerous petitions for statehood were denied because of the practice of polygamy, publicly avowed by the Mormons in 1852. Friction was increased by the assigning of non-Mormon and often incompetent federal judges to Utah, and clashes between church and federal interpretation of the law became frequent. Stories of Mormon violence toward non-Mormon settlers circulated in the East, and antagonism, much of it based on misunderstanding, grew out of proportion.
In 1857 a “state of substantial rebellion” was declared by the federal government; Young was removed from his post, and President James Buchanan directed U.S. army troops to proceed against the Mormons. The Mormons prepared for warfare, calling in outlying settlers, and guerrilla bands harassed the westward-bound troop supply trains of Albert S. Johnston. The affair, known as the “Utah War” or the “Mormon campaign,” was finally settled peacefully, but great ill feeling had developed, particularly after the massacre at Mountain Meadows. Some settlers who during the disturbances had traveled to land south of the Utah Valley remained to spread colonization there.
This turbulent episode was followed by several difficult decades. Congress passed acts forbidding polygamy in 1862, 1882, and 1887. In the attempt to enforce them, civil liberties were infringed upon and some Mormon church properties were expropriated. In 1890 a church edict advising members to abstain from the practice of polygamy was ratified, and civil rights and church properties were restored.
Statehood and the End of Isolation
Agriculture was long hampered by an 1880 court ruling favoring a concept of water as private property. Not until the Reclamation Act of 1902 was the principle of water as public property restored, reinforced by state legislation in 1903 vesting ownership of water in the state. World War II spurred industrial growth, and the development of hydroelectric power during the 1950s attracted new industries. The federal government, which owns over 60% of Utah's land, has become one of the state's largest employers, at both military and civilian facilities. Computer-software and other high-technology firms have recently given the state a diversified and robust economy.
Republicans have held the governor's seat since 1985. Michael O. Leavitt was elected to three terms (1993-2003), but resigned in 2003 to head the Environmental Protection Agency. His term was completed by his Lt. Gov., Olene S. Walker (2003-05), who was Utah's first woman governor. Jon Huntsman was elected to the office in 2004 and reelected in 2008, and then resigned in 2009 to become ambassador to China; his Lt. Gov., Gary Herbert, succeeded him in 2009, and then was elected to serve two full terms (2013-21). In 2020 Spencer Cox was elected governor.
See D. W. Meinig, “The Mormon Culture Region: Strategies and Patterns in the Geography of the American West, 1847–1964” in Annals of the Association of American Geographers (vol. 55, 1965); L. J. Arrington, Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-Day Saints (1966); W. D. Stout, History of Utah (3 vol., 1967–71); F. J. Buttle, Utah Grows (1970); R. J. Dwyer, The Gentile Comes to Utah (1971); R. V. Francaviglia, The Mormon Landscape (1979); W. Wahlquist et al., Atlas of Utah (1981); J. V. Young, State Parks of Utah: A Guide and History (1989).
Utah State Information
Area (sq mi):: 84898.83 (land 82143.65; water 2755.18) Population per square mile: 30.10
Population 2005: 2,469,585 State rank: 0 Population change: 2000-20005 10.60%; 1990-2000 29.60% Population 2000: 2,233,169 (White 85.30%; Black or African American 0.80%; Hispanic or Latino 9.00%; Asian 1.70%; Other 8.30%). Foreign born: 7.10%. Median age: 27.10
Income 2000: per capita $18,185; median household $45,726; Population below poverty level: 9.40% Personal per capita income (2000-2003): $23,878-$25,407
Unemployment (2004): 5.00% Unemployment change (from 2000): 1.60% Median travel time to work: 21.30 minutes Working outside county of residence: 16.60%
List of Utah counties:
- US National Parks
- State Parks
- Parks and Conservation-Related Organizations - US
- National Wildlife Refuges
- National Trails
- National Scenic Byways
- National Forests
a state in the mountainous western part of the USA. Area, 220,000 sq km. Population, 1.2 million (1976), of which 82 percent is urban. The capital and economic center is Salt Lake City.
Most of the state is covered with desert plateaus, including the Great Basin and the Colorado Plateau, which are dissected by the Wasatch, Uinta, and other ranges and by deep ravines. The maximum elevation is 4,123 m. Spurs of the Rocky Mountains are located in the east. The average January temperature varies from – 2° to – 4°C, and the average July temperature varies from 17° to 20°C. Precipitation totals 250–400 mm annually. The chief river is the Colorado, which has several tributaries. The northwestern part of the state has drainage basins with lakes, the largest of which is the Great Salt Lake. Vegetation is mainly of the semidesert and desert types.
Utah’s population is concentrated in oases. The economically active population numbers 470,000 (1975), of whom 14,000 are employed in agriculture, 14,000 in mining, 72,000 in manufacturing, and 28,000 in transportation. Livestock breeding, mainly cattle ranging, accounts for about 75 percent of agriculture production. Sugar beets, alfalfa, and vegetables are grown on the state’s 600,000 hectares of irrigated land. Enterprises in the state extracted 5.5 million tons of petroleum in 1976, as well as substantial amounts of natural gas and coal. Utah is the country’s second largest copper-mining state. Complex ores, gold, and iron and uranium ore are also mined. The leading branches of the manufacturing industry are nonferrous metallurgy (mainly in the Salt Lake City area), ferrous metallurgy (in Geneva, near Provo), oil refining, chemical production, meat packing, sugar refining, and the manufacture of radioelectronics equipment, rockets, and agricultural equipment.
a freshwater lake in the western USA, in the Great Basin. Utah Lake covers an area of 490 sq km. The lake’s basin is of tectonic origin. The Jordan River flows from Utah Lake and empties into the Great Salt Lake.
Forty-fifth state; admitted on January 4, 1896
State capital: Salt Lake City Nicknames: Beehive State; Salt Lake State; Crossroads of
the West State motto: Industry State animal: Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis) State bird: California gull (Larus californicus) State cooking pot: Dutch oven State emblem: Beehive State fish: Bonneville cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) State flower: Sego lily (Calochortus nuttallii) State folk dance: Square dance State fossil: Allosaurus State fruit: Cherry State gem: Topaz State grass: Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides) State historic vegetable: Sugar beet State hymn: “Utah, We Love Thee” State insect: Honeybee (Apis mellifera) State mineral: Copper State rock: Coal State song: “Utah, This Is The Place” State Star: Dubhe State tartan: Utah State Tartan State vegetable: Spanish sweet onion State tree: Blue spruce (Picea pungens)
More about state symbols at:
More about the state at:
AmerBkDays-2000, p. 21 AnnivHol-2000, p. 4
State web site: www.utah.gov
Office of the Governor PO Box 142220 Salt Lake City, UT 84114 801-538-1000 fax: 801-538-1528 www.utah.gov/governor
Utah State Library 250 N 1950 West Suite A Salt Lake City, UT 84116 801-715-6777 fax: 801-715-6767 library.utah.gov
|Pioneer Day||Jul 24|