This is indicated not only by Hubmaier's dedication of his writings to prominent Moravian aristocrats, but also by the fact that the series of pamphlets published in Nikolsburg began with the protocol of the Austerlitz Colloquy of March 1526, which envisioned a union of Moravian Utraquists
and Catholics on an evangelical basis.
In the decade of 1420, Chelcicky starts writing intensely in terms of the issues that he was contrary to Utraquists
(20) Most Czechs became Utraquists
and demanded only what was allowed in the Byzantine rite: the communion under both or sub utraque species.
Consistent with the rule established by Brother Rehor, the brethren continued to engage only in crafts and agriculture as occupations.(94) Despite sporadic persecution in the 1460s by both Roman and Utraquist
Churches, the Unitas Fratrum flourished.
Before the Thirty Years War, this was a very religiously tolerant part of Europe with an immensely rich hymnologic tradition, documented by dozens of printed and manuscript hymnals of Utraquist
, Brethren, (3) and Lutheran origin.
Looking first at the historiography of the Bohemian national revival, he finds that recent scholarship has made little of the influence of Utraquist
writings on later Bohemian nationalist thought, an oversight his work aims to remedy.
Over the major part of the century, the prevailingly Utraquist
society above all required prints of music that could be sung by the "common people", that is, monophonic songs, whereas the more difficult-to-perform polyphony, supposed to be delivered by skilful singers, for a long time to come continued to be copied or, exceptionally, bought abroad (selected pieces by Europe-renowned composers).
On top of deep-rooted attachment to the Churches of the Utraquists
and Bohemian Brethren, Lutheranism had spread during the sixteenth century and there was some native support for Reformed styles of religion.
Originally, the local men of letters were Utraquists
, spiritual descendants of Jan Hus, who believed that the Eucharist should be received under both forms.
did not view Hus as a single-handed originator of something new, but as a regular participant, albeit an outstanding one, in the restoration of an old pristine tradition.
On the other hand, the Utraquists
, who distanced themselves from Catholicism, sang polyphonic songs by Catholic - for instance, Franco-Flemish - authors.
This struggle continued even into the following period of relative peace between Catholics and Utraquists
, and we find references to the St.