Utrecht, Treaty of

Utrecht, Treaty of

 

the name for the series of bilateral peace treaties that, along with the Treaty of Rastatt of 1714, ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Treaties were signed in Utrecht on Apr. 11, 1713, between France and Great Britain, the Dutch Republic of the United Provinces, Prussia, Savoy, and Portugal; on July 13, 1713, between Spain and Great Britain and Spain and Savoy; on June 26, 1714, between Spain and the Republic of the United Provinces, and on Feb. 6, 1715, between Spain and Portugal.

The treaties recognized the right of Philip V Bourbon to Spain and its transoceanic possessions on condition that he and his successors renounce all rights to the French crown. Great Britain gained the most from the treaties: from Spain it received Gibraltar and Mahon, an important port on the island of Menorca, both of which it had taken during the war, and from France it received a number of possessions in North America, including the Hudson Bay territory, Newfoundland, and Acadia; Great Britain also acquired special trading rights with the Spanish colonies, including the right of asiento. Savoy gained Sicily, Montferrat, and part of the Duchy of Milan from Spain, and Prussia received part of upper Geloerland and several other territories; France recognized the royal title of King Frederick I of Prussia. The Treaty of Utrecht was an important step toward establishing the commercial and colonial supremacy of Great Britain.

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