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see skin cancerskin cancer,
malignant tumor of the skin. The most common types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Rarer forms include mycosis fungoides (a type of lymphoma) and Kaposi's sarcoma.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



melanoblastoma; a malignant tumor that consists of melanin-producing cells.

Factors conducive to the development of melanomas include injury and hormonal stimulation, especially during puberty. Melanomas generally occur on the skin; less often, they appear on the retina, pia mater, nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, and mucosa of the intestine and other organs. Melanomas usually develop at the site of pigmented or depigmented birthmarks, but they may also appear elsewhere. The process starts with a barely perceptible, painless tumor on the skin, sometimes resembling a wart, which gradually becomes dark brown or black. Occasionally, it ulcerates and bleeds. In case of injury, the tumor may enlarge quickly and become tuberous, dense at the base, and stiffer. The regional lymph nodes enlarge. The initial signs that a melanoma is developing at the site of a birthmark are the birthmark’s enlargement, an intensification or reduction in its pigmentation, and the appearance of a red rim around it. Treatment involves prompt surgical intervention, based on early diagnosis, and the use of radiotherapy and drugs to retard the growth and reproduction of the cells.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A malignant tumor composed of anaplastic melanocytes.
A benign or malignant tumor composed of melanocytes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Pathol a malignant tumour composed of melanocytes, occurring esp in the skin, often as a result of excessive exposure to sunlight
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Up to 50% of people with uveal melanoma will eventually develop metastatic disease.
Clinical activity of ipilimumab for metastatic uveal melanoma: A retrospective review of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and University Hospital of Lausanne Experience.
Uveal Melanoma. Stable disease was observed in 29 patients (26.4%) treated with chemotherapy and in 32 (32%) patients treated with immunotherapy, corresponding to disease control rates of 30.0% (95% CI: 21.6-39.5%) in patients treated with chemotherapy and 32% (95% CI: 23.0-42.1%) in those treated with immunotherapy.
With the exception of uveal melanomas [13], these have all shown that tumour cells possess elevated SCE frequency in keeping with genetic instability as a hallmark of cancer.
Orbital exenteration for uveal melanomas with extrascleral spread is considered only in presence of gross orbital tumour extension [13].
Seregard, "Uveal melanoma: epidemiologic aspects," Ophthalmology Clinics of North America, vol.
[21], from the tissue perspective, support the theory that both microvascular densities by counting tumor vessels in a masked fashion from areas of the highest vessel density after immunostaining for CD34 epitope, factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAg), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and microvascular patterns contribute independently to prognosis in uveal melanoma in addition to cell type and size of the tumor.
Brouwer et al., "Clinical significance of immunohistochemistry for detection of BAP1 mutations in uveal melanoma," Modern Pathology, vol.
Portenar, "Hepatic metastasis and orbital recurrence of uveal melanoma after 42 years," American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
Uveal melanoma is an intraocular malignancy with an incidence of approximately six per million per year in Caucasians.
Histologically, it is not possible to determine whether the melanoma arose from within the eye (as in a uveal melanoma or sinonasal melanoma extending into the orbit) or if it had metastasized from another location.