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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(New-Uighur), the language of the Uighurs, spoken in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China by 5.5 million people (1975, estimate). Uighur is also spoken in certain regions of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India and in the Kazakh, Uzbek, Kirghiz, and Turkmen SSR’s by more than 150,000 people (1970 census). Uighur belongs to the southeastern (Middle Asian, or Karluk) group of Turkic languages.

Uighur comprises three dialects: the northwestern or central dialect, the eastern, or Lop Nor dialect, and the southern, or Hat’-ang dialect. The northwestern dialect includes ten subdialects, of which the Hi subdialect forms the basis for the modern Uighur literary language. The characteristic phonetic features of Uighur include ten vowels and 26 consonants, including ж[d3], K [q], H [B], and h. Synharmony is inconsistent. The language shares morphological features with the other Turkic languages.

The literary language of the Uighurs in the USSR is a unified national language. In the USSR, the writing system was based on Arabic script until 1930; in Sinkiang this script is still in use. The Latin alphabet was used in the USSR from 1930 to 1946, when the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced, with additional symbols for special phonemes.

The term “Uighur” was adopted for this language in 1921 at the suggestion of S. E. Malov, although Uighur is not a linguistic continuation of the Old Uighur language.


Kaidarov, A. T. “Uigurskii (novouigurskii) iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1966. (Contains bibliography.)
Uigursko-russkiislovar’. Alma-Ata, 1961.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
[20] Jun Zhang, Zhiwei Zhang, Yulei Ding et al., "Adipose Tissues Characteristics of Normal, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes in Uygurs Population," Journal of Diabetes Research, vol.
In regard to Turkey's foreign policy, Uygur said that he had no criticisms of the Turkish foreign policy.
It is a place where Turkey has power and it looks at Turkey as a fair mediator, Uygur said.
The EU is in an economic mess presently and, perhaps, their rejection of Turkey is a good thing, Uygur underlined.
relations, Uygur said that the peoples of Turkey and the U.S.
Touching on American Turks, Uygur said that nowadays there were many American Turks who could be regarded as successful such as Dr.
Uygur activists have slammed the trials for being ''highly politicized'' and lacking in transparency and said the sentences handed down will only worsen the unrest in Xinjiang.
The Chinese government has alleged the riots were instigated by overseas separatist forces led by Kadeer, but Uygur rights activists say the protests were the result of anger at China's discriminatory policies against the Uygurs' religion, culture and language.
Han was found by Urumqi's Intermediate People's Court to be the mastermind behind the attacks on the two Uygurs and given the death penalty, while Liu was given a 10-year jail sentence, Xinhua said.
Han Chinese residents carried out revenge attacks after the initial violence broke out July 5, smashing Uygur-owned businesses and attacking Uygurs in the city.
Right: Uygur tombs on the edge of the desert, Turpan.
A shaved head and long beard is the most common hairstyle for Uygur men;