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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(New-Uighur), the language of the Uighurs, spoken in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China by 5.5 million people (1975, estimate). Uighur is also spoken in certain regions of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India and in the Kazakh, Uzbek, Kirghiz, and Turkmen SSR’s by more than 150,000 people (1970 census). Uighur belongs to the southeastern (Middle Asian, or Karluk) group of Turkic languages.

Uighur comprises three dialects: the northwestern or central dialect, the eastern, or Lop Nor dialect, and the southern, or Hat’-ang dialect. The northwestern dialect includes ten subdialects, of which the Hi subdialect forms the basis for the modern Uighur literary language. The characteristic phonetic features of Uighur include ten vowels and 26 consonants, including ж[d3], K [q], H [B], and h. Synharmony is inconsistent. The language shares morphological features with the other Turkic languages.

The literary language of the Uighurs in the USSR is a unified national language. In the USSR, the writing system was based on Arabic script until 1930; in Sinkiang this script is still in use. The Latin alphabet was used in the USSR from 1930 to 1946, when the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced, with additional symbols for special phonemes.

The term “Uighur” was adopted for this language in 1921 at the suggestion of S. E. Malov, although Uighur is not a linguistic continuation of the Old Uighur language.


Kaidarov, A. T. “Uigurskii (novouigurskii) iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1966. (Contains bibliography.)
Uigursko-russkiislovar’. Alma-Ata, 1961.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Iqbal is one of dozens of merchants from Gilgit-Baltistan who return to Pakistan for visa reasons or to run their businesses and have been unable to contact their Uygur families living in China, according to Javed Hussain, a member of the local assembly for the Pakistani region that borders Xinjiang.
He translated many literary works from Kazakh into Uygur, including the poems of Alibek Tazhibayev, Khalizhan Bekkhozhin, Syrymzhan Mavlenov, and the dramas of Sabit Mukanov and thus contributed to communication between Kazakhs and Uygurs.
Our results showed that gene expression in the visceral adipose tissue of normal, obesity, and T2DM subjects in the Uygurs was significantly different, and the expression levels of TBX1 and TCF21, the marker of white adipocytes and brown-like white adipocytes, respectively [13], were significantly greater in the obesity group than in normal and T2DM groups and significantly lower in the T2DM group than in normal group (P < 0.01).
Turkey's state-run Anadolu news agency on Wednesday reported a request by Turkish Foreign Minister MevlE-t EcavuE-oy-lu for Thailand to send the Uygurs there, a move that angered China, which views their move to Thailand as "illegal immigration."
The Information Center for Human Rights and Democracy said airport security has been raised at 20 airports including those in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, to the same level of that during the 2008 Olympic Games, to ensure safety in Urumqi, capital of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where the first China-Eurasia Expo will be held through Monday.
The Communist Party chief in China's restive Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has been replaced, China's official Xinhua News Agency reported Saturday, quoting the Communist Party of China Central Committee.
Mukadaisi said the video about a girl in red being beaten to death by a group of people using stones, was a Uygur girl beaten to death by the Han people, which sparked a lot of anger amongst (Western) Uyghurs.
Beijing, Oct 8(ANI): A prominent Al-Qaida militant has threatened to attack China in retaliation for the July 5 riots in Urumqi, capital of the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.
Han Chinese residents carried out revenge attacks after the initial violence broke out July 5, smashing Uygur-owned businesses and attacking Uygurs in the city.
The July 5 riot in Urumqi left 184 people dead including 137 ethnic Han, 46 Uygurs and one ethnic Hui, according to government figures.
The trials are expected to start this week in the capital of the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Northwest China.
Under this policy, Uygurs in Xinjiang have complained that Han Chinese are being given preferential treatment when it comes to reaping the economic benefits deriving from the development of abundant natural resources in Uygur areas, such as petroleum and natural gas.