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(Vehicle-to-Everything) Vehicle-to-everything is the ultimate manifestation of automated traffic and self-driving cars. V2X comprises the wireless communications from vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) as well as from vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), the latter envisioned as a network of base stations along roads and highways.

V2X means surrounding traffic conditions are transmitted to the vehicle with much greater precision than today's in-dash notification systems that warn of street closures and traffic jams. Future alerts for road repairs, hazards and detours will be similar to today's Waze navigation but with much greater real-time detail. Drivers will be able to avoid problems; for example, they can be instantly warned when approaching a curve too quickly, and the car may even slow down by itself.

Traffic lights can be coordinated more effectively with passenger cars as well as emergency vehicles, eventually eliminating the physical lights altogether (see virtual traffic lights). In addition, payments made directly from the vehicle will allow drivers to automatically pay for parking at garages and fast food at drive-ins just like today's E-ZPass pays highway tolls. See self-driving car.

Dedicated short range communications (DSRC) is a proposed V2X standard for North America that uses the 802.11p protocol in the 5.9 GHz band. Pedestrians and cyclists with DSRC-enabled smartphones can also interact with the vehicle's system. In 2018, the American Trucking Associations (ATA) and Toyota both endorsed the DSRC method.

Cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) is another V2X standard that uses LTE cellular bands that are separate from those used by cellphone subscribers. Introduced in 2017 by the 3GPP, C-V2X covers two systems: one for real-time traffic and road conditions and another for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-pedestrian/cyclists.
References in periodicals archive ?
Current plans to require V2V connected vehicle safety technologies as mandatory safety equipment do not contemplate either V2I or V2X applications.
As data transmission through a route has different data rates (V2V, V2I, I2V, and I2I), the total expected time delay to send the data packet from one junction [J.
This can also be seen in the application participant's criteria, CVW is V2I and CCW is V2V.
Therefore a simple mathematical model for goodput evaluation of vehicular communication systems in V2I scenario was presented and analyzed for understanding the basic processes in wireless data networks prior to conducting larger field trials.
Events from the roadside have a local meaning, because they are context-aware information exchanged in a V2I pattern.
In [9], the author proposed a novel multi-hop data harvesting (MDH) method for the V2I architecture.
Coverage includes an overview of vehicular networks in the forms of Intra-Vehicle (InV), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications; technologies related to InV, V2V, and V2I communications which will enable applications for safety, traffic efficiency, driver assistance, and infotainment; privacy, security and reliability; simulation architectures; communication-among-vehicles models; vehicle mobility features; and in-vehicle network architectures for the next-generation vehicles.
The automaker has trialled its V2I capabilities in the area around its Warren Technical Centre campus.
Approximately 13,000 vehicles travel this corridor every day, and by using V2V and V2I, the Wyoming Department of Transportation [WYDOT] will collect information from vehicles equipped with the new technologies and disseminate information to those that are not equipped," says USDOT's Leonard.
It would be interesting to also integrate our proposed framework with the Internet and this may offer an opportunity to apply BLE technology in V2I or V2X communications.
The second, IPv6/ TCP/UDP typically would be used in V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure), especially when accessing infotainment or enabling safety services which use SAE J2735 message protocols that include a message type called a Basic Safety Message, BSM, also referred to as a heartbeat message.
According to the Department of Transportation, V2V and V2I applications notify drivers of "roadway hazards and dangerous situations that they can't see through driver advisories, driver warnings, and vehicle and/or infrastructure controls.