VR

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VR

This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

VR

The rotation speed. It is at this speed that the nose should be lifted to attain the takeoff attitude. It is normally a function of aircraft weight and flap setting, but it can vary with height and temperature. It should be such that rotation at this speed will result in the aircraft becoming airborne and rapidly attaining the takeoff safety speed (V2).
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

virtual reality

A computer-generated reality that projects the user into a 3D space. Using a stereoscopic headset that provides a completely immersive experience, the virtual reality (VR) system is operated by the user's head and hand movements or a physical control unit, the latter commonly used with virtual reality games. In the early days of VR, data gloves tethered by wires to a computer were used to track hand gestures.

The very first virtual reality systems were created for pilot and astronaut training, employing a physical housing that looks like the inside of a cockpit. Extremely costly and still being used, they provide a totally realistic experience that simulates taking off, flying and landing (see flight simulator).

Like Real Life
When people wear ordinary non-VR video goggles, turning their head horizontally or vertically changes nothing (see video headphones). However, just as in real life, when people move their head with a VR headset, the view changes. VR headsets are either entirely self-contained units or a device that contains the user's smartphone (see VR headset, Oculus, Samsung Gear VR, Daydream VR and Google Cardboard).

Virtual Reality vs. Augmented Reality
"Virtual" reality is an entirely generated environment, whereas "augmented" reality creates images or video in space in front of the user or off to the side (see augmented reality). See virtual reality locomotion, social VR, 3D visualization, virtual world, head mounted display, 6DOF, cyberspace, VRML and Second Life.


VR at the Dentist
In the late 1990s, this VR system kept children entertained at the dentist. Using a game controller, this boy was manipulating the scenes. (Image courtesy of I-O Display Systems.)







Spatially Immersive Systems
In the early 1990s, Fakespace Systems' CAVE products were developed by the Electronic Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois. These examples simulate a new train station (top) for observation and a Caterpillar bulldozer for training (below). The steering wheel on the left meets the real wheel on the right in virtual space. (Images courtesy of Mechdyne Corporation, www.mechdyne.com)


Spatially Immersive Systems
In the early 1990s, Fakespace Systems' CAVE products were developed by the Electronic Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois. These examples simulate a new train station (top) for observation and a Caterpillar bulldozer for training (below). The steering wheel on the left meets the real wheel on the right in virtual space. (Images courtesy of Mechdyne Corporation, www.mechdyne.com)







Virtual Reality in the 1950s
In 1957, Morton Heilig created the first fully immersive system. Not only did the Sensorama have 3D and stereo sound, it included smell, seat vibrations and wind to enhance the illusion. (Image courtesy of Minecraftpsyco.)

voice recognition

(1) Using a person's voice as a form of identification. See two-factor authentication.

(2) The conversion of spoken words into computer text. Speech is first digitized and then matched against a dictionary of coded waveforms. Also called "speech recognition," the matches are converted into text as if the words were typed on the keyboard. "Speaker-dependent" systems require users to enunciate samples to train and fine tune the system. "Speaker-independent" recognition such as telephone voice response systems do not require training but generally handle only a limited vocabulary.

Three Categories
The least taxing on the electronics, "command" systems recognize several dozen words and eliminate using the mouse or keyboard. "Discrete voice" recognition systems used for dictation require a pause between each word. "Continuous voice" recognition understands natural speech without pauses and is the most process intensive. The Holy Grail of voice recognition, speaker-independent, continuous systems that handle extensive vocabularies are slowly but surely becoming mainstream. Contrast with speaker recognition.


First Handheld Speech Recognition
The first continuous dictation in a handheld device was in 2000 when Lernout & Hauspie showed off this Linux PDA prototype. It provided keyboard-free email composition. (Image courtesy of Lernout & Hauspie.)

voice recorder

A digital, handheld device that is used to record short reminders. Very lightweight and typically using AAA batteries, such devices use flash memory to hold up to 100 messages and more. Messages can be retrieved sequentially or by direct access by message number. See microcassette.


Voice Recorders
There are myriad digital voice recorders on the market. Weighing only a couple of ounces, recorders are available that hold 100 messages and more.
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