Vacuoles


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Vacuoles

 

small, usually spherical cavities in animal and plant cells or in unicellular organisms. In the cells of a number of multicellular invertebrates (sponges, coelenterates, turbellarians, and some mollusks) that are capable of intracellular digestion and in the bodies of certain unicellular organisms (Protozoa), digestive vacuoles containing digestive enzymes are formed. In higher animals digestive vacuoles are formed in special cells called phagocytes. In other cells vacuoles contain salts, enzymes, and metabolic products (such as fats). In many unicellular organisms there are also contractile, or pulsating vacuoles, which periodically discharge their contents into the external environment. In protozoans, contractile vacuoles are the principal apparatus for regulating osmotic pressure; they also serve to remove decomposition products from the organism.

Plant vacuoles are filled with colorless or pigmented cell fluid. The cytoplasm is separated from the vacuoles by a lipoid-protein semipermeable membrane. Substances dissolved in the cell fluid of plant vacuoles (such as sugars, polysaccharides, alkaloids, tannin, pigments, and certain salts) cause nutritive substances and water to enter the cell by virtue of osmosis and create mechanical tension of cells and tissues, or turgor. In very young cells there are no vacuoles or they are almost unnoticeable; as the cell grows and ages, vacuoles appear in its various sectors, then gradually enlarge and unite into one large vacuole—a so-called vacuolar system.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Rimmed vacuoles, inclusion bodies, or amorphous substance likely exist in the subsarcolemmal and sarcoplasm of some muscle fibers.
Histopathological studies on light microscopy reveal localized toxic effects of ketamine, vacuoles were seen in posterior root ganglia.
Histochemical stains reveal that the cytoplasmic vacuoles in SRSCT do not contain mucins, glycogen, or lipid.
Although other works have mentioned the presence of granules (acidophiles) within parasitophorous vacuoles of several sizes in acidophilic RLO, they do not describe the sizes of the inclusions inside the parasitophorous vacuoles of infected cells (Meyers 1981, Wu & Pan 1999, Zhu et al.
In the current study, the numerous vacuoles were seen in the cytoplasm of vitrified oocytes which may be a sign of structural damages to the oocyte following vitrification.
Many cells containing autophagic vacuoles were found in the mantle layer of the MeHg-treated embryos (Figures 5(a)-5(f)).
After 14 days of adipogenic induction, we evaluated the intensity of Oil red O staining and lipid vacuole formation for further validation of the adipogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs, as well as the expression of the adipogenic-specific markers PPAR[gamma] and leptin.
(a) Vacuoles filled with polysaccharide material (PAS, x 40); (b) vacuoles stained positively for acid phosphatase reaction (x 20); (c) ATPase histochemistry at pH 4.3 revealed selective atrophy of type 1 fibers (x 40); (d) vacuoles are present predominantly in type 1 fibers (x 40); (e)-(f) atrophic fibers containing numerous nemaline bodies (Gomori trichrome, x 100).
Thin pleomorphic to elongate bacteria are present extracellularly (top left panel) and in cytoplasmic vacuoles within mononuclear phagocytes (top right and bottom panels).
During autophagy, however, lysosomes fuse with autophagic vacuoles, resulting in an increase in the intensity and size of Lamp2 fluorescent puncta (Fig.
The most striking feature of the enterocytes of posterior intestine was noted as the presence of large and clear supranuclear vacuoles. Although most of the posterior enterocytes were exhibited a number of heterogen vacuoles, some of them had fusioned, giant and homogenous ones (Fig.