Vagus Nerve


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Vagus Nerve

 

in man, the tenth pair of cranial nerves, a paired mixed nerve containing motor, sensory, and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) fibers. The vagus nerve has three nuclei in the medulla oblongata in common with the glossopharyngeal nerve—the dorsal nucleus (autonomic); the ventral, or ambiguus, nucleus (motor); and the nucleus of the so-called tractus solitarius (sensory). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve originate in two ganglia (superior and inferior) situated outside the cranium in the region of the jugular foramen. They then enter the cranial cavity and proceed to the medulla oblongata, from which they emerge with the vagus nerve through the jugular foramen. The vagus nerve is located in the neck with the carotid artery and jugular vein. It penetrates to the thorax, from which, together with the esophagus, it passes through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity, forming plexuses on the walls of the esophagus, stomach, and so on. The motor fibers of the vagus nerve supply the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and heart (inhibition of cardiac activity, regulation of blood pressure, and so forth). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve supply the occipital portions of the dura mater, the neck organs, stomach, and lungs. The vagus nerve participates in many reflex acts (swallowing, coughing, vomiting, filling and emptying of the stomach) and in regulation of the heartbeat and breathing. It is also part of the solar plexus. Injury to the motor nuclei of the vagus nerve impairs swallowing, phona-tion, articulation, and respiration—that is, the so-called bulbar disturbances, which occur in bulbar paralysis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myeloencephalitis, and other diseases.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 1, book 1. Edited by N. I. Grashchenkov. Moscow, 1959.
Clara, M. Das Nervensystem des Menschen, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1953.
References in periodicals archive ?
The VNS Therapy System consists of an implanted pacemaker-like generator attached to a stimulation lead, which delivers mild intermittent stimulation to the patient's left vagus nerve which sends signals to the brain.
Therefore, if pharyngeal muscle atrophy or a deviated uvula is found on physical examination or imaging studies, vagus nerve lesions high in the neck or in the skull base may be present.
But more studies are needed to determine if vagus nerve stimulation can be used as a treatment for depression.
In 1938, Bailey and Bremer[1] were the first to demonstrate that stimulation of the cephalic end of a severed vagus nerve produced a change in electrical activity in the cortex of the brain in cats.
The sensor lead is extended from the stimulator to the right ventricle of the heart, and the stimulation lead is extended from the stimulator to the vagus nerve on the right side of the neck.
The FDA approved the first surgically implanted vagus nerve stimulator for epilepsy in 1997.
The treatment, which is self-administered by the patient for 120 seconds at home, involves placing the small, hand-held gammaCore device on the skin of the neck over the vagus nerve.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and Electronic Muscle Stimulation (EMS) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) External Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (eTNS) Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) Carotid Sinus Nerve Stimulation (CSNS) Cochlear Implants Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Gastric Electrical Stimulation (GES) Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (PNS) Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS)Neurostimulation is often associated with use in pain relief or therapy.
1 The contract is the supply of stimulants for the treatment of refractory epilepsy with lease timer to the vagus nerve stimulator.
The main components of the device are a pulse generator implanted into the lateral chest wall, connected to two electrical leads placed around the abdominal vagus nerve via a laparoscopic procedure under general anesthesia.
has received the CE mark for the AspireSR generator, the company's sixth-generation vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Therapy generator.
Co-author of the study, Dr Anish Sheth said that the distention of the rectum that comes with the passing of a large mass of stool causes the vagus nerve to fire.