Vagus Nerve


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Vagus Nerve

 

in man, the tenth pair of cranial nerves, a paired mixed nerve containing motor, sensory, and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) fibers. The vagus nerve has three nuclei in the medulla oblongata in common with the glossopharyngeal nerve—the dorsal nucleus (autonomic); the ventral, or ambiguus, nucleus (motor); and the nucleus of the so-called tractus solitarius (sensory). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve originate in two ganglia (superior and inferior) situated outside the cranium in the region of the jugular foramen. They then enter the cranial cavity and proceed to the medulla oblongata, from which they emerge with the vagus nerve through the jugular foramen. The vagus nerve is located in the neck with the carotid artery and jugular vein. It penetrates to the thorax, from which, together with the esophagus, it passes through the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity, forming plexuses on the walls of the esophagus, stomach, and so on. The motor fibers of the vagus nerve supply the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and heart (inhibition of cardiac activity, regulation of blood pressure, and so forth). The sensory fibers of the vagus nerve supply the occipital portions of the dura mater, the neck organs, stomach, and lungs. The vagus nerve participates in many reflex acts (swallowing, coughing, vomiting, filling and emptying of the stomach) and in regulation of the heartbeat and breathing. It is also part of the solar plexus. Injury to the motor nuclei of the vagus nerve impairs swallowing, phona-tion, articulation, and respiration—that is, the so-called bulbar disturbances, which occur in bulbar paralysis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myeloencephalitis, and other diseases.

REFERENCES

Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po nevrologii, vol. 1, book 1. Edited by N. I. Grashchenkov. Moscow, 1959.
Clara, M. Das Nervensystem des Menschen, 2nd ed. Leipzig, 1953.
References in periodicals archive ?
Readers can find detailed taxonomy and definition of the vagus nerve stimulator market in this chapter, which will help readers to understand the basic information about the vagus nerve stimulator market.
And how do we stimulate the vagus nerve? Very simply, through meditation and physical exercise.
The accessory nerve emerges from a groove that runs along the bulb behind the bulbar olive, immediately below the vagus nerve (Surek et al.).
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Tracey, MD, found that the brain and the vagus nerve are involved in controlling immune responses and inflammation - this discovery has been called the inflammatory reflex.
Non-invasive transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) has been recently introduced.
This novel device will be used to stimulate the vagus nerve in order to activate the efferent arm of the Inflammatory Reflex known as the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Pathway (CAP)."
VNS, in which an implanted device stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses, initially was used to reduce the frequency of seizures in patients with epilepsy and treatment-resistant partial onset seizures.
The NAOS system is a next-generation, small-form, MRI-safe, implanted neurostimulation device which stimulates the vagus nerve. It is currently being developed for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy and Synergia is conducting advanced-stage testing of the device ahead of CE mark filing, which is expected to take place in 2019.
Upper extension was seen till the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and the mass was seen to arise from the right vagus nerve.
Modern techniques of neurosurgery for depression are mainly based on three methods: ablative procedures to deactivate pathologically active circuits, deep brain stimulation (DBS) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS); procedures such as cortical stimulation are also being investigated (7).
We propose that the vagus nerve may fulfil all these requirements.