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(vī'shəshē`kə): see Hindu philosophyHindu philosophy,
the philosophical speculations and systems of India that have their roots in Hinduism. Characteristics

Hindu philosophy began in the period of the Upanishads (900–500 B.C.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



one of the six orthodox Hindu systems of ancient Indian philosophy.

According to tradition, the founder of the Vaisheshika system was Kanada; the fundamental work of the system, the Vaisheshika Sutra (the final text of which dates to the first half of the first millennium), is attributed to him. Another important source of the Vaisheshika is the Padartha-dharma-sangraha —commentaries to the Vaisheshika Sutra. The Vaisheshika attained its greatest development in southern India during the ninth through 14th centuries.

According to the teaching of the Vaisheshika, everything that exists is included in six categories: substance, quality, action, the general, the particular, and the inherent. Substance, which expresses the essence of a thing, is the main category. The nine substances (earth, water, light, air, ether, time, space, spirit, and mind), which are endowed with qualities (permanent characteristics) and actions (transient characteristics), make up the entire existing universe. The Vaisheshika maintained an atomistic viewpoint, according to which the first four substances were combinations of atoms (anu) —invariable spherical material particles. Although atoms were not created by anyone and exist eternally, they are passive: they start to move because of an invisible force, adrishty, and then enter into combinations under the direction of the world spirit Brahma, which subjects the material world to the eternal cyclical process of creation and destruction. The sensuously apprehended world exists in time, space, and ether and is governed by a special universal moral law (dharma).


Radhakrishnan, S. Indiiskaia filosofiia, vols. 1-2. Moscow, 1956—57. (Translated from English.)
Keith, A. B. Indian Logic and Atomism: An Exposition of the Nyaya and Vaiçeşika Systems. Oxford, 1921.
Mishra, U. Conception of Matter According to Nyaya-Vaiçeşika. Allahabad, 1936.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Para a compreensao desta experiencia, as filosofias misticas indianas elaboraram-se diversos discursos controversos, representados em diferentes escolas ou darshanas: Samkhya, Vedanta, Mimansa, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, entre outras (MULLER, 1899).
Smriti literature includes the Dharmasutras, Itihasa (histories, including the epics Mahabharata and the Ramayana), Purana (18 books that focus on Shiva or Vishnu as the preferred supreme deity), Vedanga (six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas), Agama (the Vaishnava, Shaiva, and Shakta doctrines), and Darshana (philosophies--six in number, including the Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa) texts.
The Vaisheshika categorization (padartha) is about reality, and is chiefly concerned with questions of logic and how we can know anything.
"Uchenie ob atome v sisteme vaysheeshikov"/Teachings regarding Atom in Vaisheshika's System/, Voprosy Filosofii, (1959), 7, 93-98
Filosofiya prostranstva i vremeni v Indii: shkola vaisheshika,/Philosophy of Space and Tune in India: Vaiseshika School/.--Ratsionalisticheskaya traditsiya i sovremennos't, Indiya.
Ny a ya and Vaisheshika, both of which teach that the Vedas are divinely revealed and which attempt logical - scientific explanations for existence and reality; and (6) Yoga, which teaches the path to moksha through various mental and physical exercises and meditation.