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(Preobrazhenskii Monastery), located on Valaam Island in Lake Ladoga.
The Valaam Monastery was founded by people from Novgorod no later than the beginning of the 14th century. Situated on the border of Novgorod’s possessions, it served as a fortress, repulsing the attacks of the Swedes on many occasions. It was destroyed by the Swedes in 1611 and restored in 1715 by a ukase of Peter I the Great. The monastery was known for its strict regulations. It was used as a monastic prison. Valaam Monastery was famous for its well-organized farm; there was dairy livestock-raising, orchard cultivation, vegetable raising, fishing, and handicrafts. About 40 small islands with 130 desiatiny (141.7 hectares) of land suitable for sowing and haying belonged to the monastery. The monastery’s farm employed the labor of monks and numerous pilgrims and peasants. Generous payments by the Moscow grand princes and tsars were a substantial item in the income of the monastery. The monastery is preserved as a historical and architectural monument.