Valdai Hills


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Valdai Hills

 

an elevated region in the northwestern part of the Russian Plain within the boundaries of the Leningrad, Novgorod, Kalinin, Pskov, and Smolensk oblasts. More than 600 km long.

Rivers with their sources in the Valdai Hills include the Volga, Zapadnaia Dvina, Lovat’, Msta, Sias’, and Mologa. The elevation of these hills varies from 150 to 250 km; the greatest elevation is 343 m (on the upper reaches of the Tsna River). The foundation of the Valdai Hills is composed of bedrocks (carboniferous limestones, marls, and clays) that form the northwestern limb of the Moscow syneclise. They are covered by glacial and combined water and glacial deposits. Usually included in the Valdai Hills are the Tikhvin and Megra ridges, the Vepsovskaia Highland, and other mountainous areas. The northwestern slope of the Valdai Hills is steep (the Valdai-Onega Scarp), whereas the south-eastern slope has a gentle slope. The topography is morainic, with hills and ridges. There are many lakes, including the lakes of the Upper Volga (Peno, Vselug, and Volgo) and Lake Seliger. There are also many swamps. Along the southeastern edge of the Valdai Hills (a region of hills and lakes) runs the boundary of the Valdai (Ostashkov) Glacier. The Valdai Hills are a tourist region.