v] produced by a valence electron
at the core, and subsequently obtained the following expressions for [V.
Atoms with one or two valence electrons, such as sodium and potassium, have low electronegativity and lose their valence electrons easily, whereas atoms with five to seven valence electrons, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine, are highly electronegative and, additionally, tend to remove electrons from less electronegative atoms.
Heavier (higher atomic weight) elements with the same number of valence electrons are less electronegative than their lighter counterparts.
The main hypothesis of the model describes how the valence electrons become involved in a binding process when they are at very short distance giving rise to a new state or quasi-particle, called isoelectronium.
In fact, the Pauli principle requires that the two valence electrons are correlated-bounded in a singlet state; as a result, the isoelctronium has spin zero.
The low energy band associated with the diagram emission band involves transitions from valence electrons
, some of them originating from oxygen states.
Their crystal structures and the arrangement of their valence electrons
(the ones that participate in chemical bonds) reshuffle, Ruoff says, to match those of the unstressed elements in the column to the right on the periodic table -- namely, niobium and tantalum.
In that case, valence electrons
, the electrons that bind the atoms together in the crystal (which are not the same as the conduction electrons that form electric currents) jump from one atom to another, causing force distortions that bind the conduction electrons in pairs.