Benzoic acid, valeric
acid, butyric acid and propionic acid were obtained from Merck, whereas phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide were reagent grade.
The synthesis of VALPOx with active free carboxylic acid groups was achieved from the nucleophilic displacement reaction of oxadiazole-activated bis(fluoride) monomer with 4,4This(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric
Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid) copolymer was synthesized by free radical copolymerization of monomers in 75:25 (v solvent : v reactants ) tetrahydrofuran (THF) using 4,4'-azobis(4cyano valeric
acid) (ACVA) as the initiator.
For juniper, isovaleric acid was detected in the second replicate but not the first, while valeric
acid was detected in the first but not the second.
D Aliyu and Nwabueze (2007) synthesis and solution studies of coppor (11) valeric
and isovaleric acid hydrazide in aqueous, medium J.
Products: 2-Ethylhexoic acid, Propionic acid, Valeric
Fermentation results in the production of volatile fatty acids--acetic, propionic, isobutyric, isovaleric, and valeric
Table 1 Typical trigeminal stimulants Volatile stimulants (1) Water-soluble stimulants Octanol Capsaicin (2) Nicotine Piperine (2) Heptanol Zingerone (2) Hexanol Eugenol (2) Octanoic acid Allyl-isothiocyanate (2) Heptanoic acid Dihydrocapsaicin (3) [alpha]-Terpineol Nordihydrocapsaicin (3) l-Carvone Homocapsaicin (3) Butyric acid Homodihydrocapsaicin (3) Pentanol Resiniferatoxin (3) Acetic acid Isovelleral (3) Diethylamine Scutigeral (3) Cyclohexanone Capsazepine (3) Benzaldehyde Ovanil (3) Benzyl acetate Valeric
acid Formic acid Butanol Amyl acetate Ethanol Propanol Limonene Butyl acetate Toluene Methanol (1) Bryant and Silver (2000); in order of increasing threshold.
The typical constituents of valerian roots are found to be valeric
and isovaleric acid, monoterpenes ([alpha]-pinene, [alpha]-fenchene, camphene), monoterpenic esters (bornyl acetate, myrtenyl acetate, myrtenyl isovaleriate), oxygen containing sesquiterpenes, and valerian cyclopentanoid sesquiterpenes such as valerenal, valerenone, valerenol, valerenyl acetate, valerenic acid, and valerenyl isovalerate.
KOH in a tight-closed bottle, in presence of 4-methyl valeric
acid (internal standard) and methyl hydroquinone (polymerization inhibitor).
Valerian's constituents include sesquiterpenes of the volatile oil (including valeric
acid), iridoids (valepotriates), alkaloids, furanofuran lignans, and free amino acids such as GABA, tyrosine, arginine, and glutamine.
Products: Acids, including: isopentanoic acid and valeric