Valeric Acids

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Valeric Acids

 

monobasic saturated organic acids with the general formula C4H9COOH, colorless liquids having a characteristic odor. Four isomers of valeric acids are possible, depending upon the structure of the hydrocarbon radical; their characteristics are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Isomers of valeric acids

Acid

Melting point
(° C)

Boiling point
(° C)

Valeric CH3(CH2)3COOH................

-34.5

186.3

Isovaleric (CH3)2CHCH2COOH................

-37.6

176.7

Methyl ethyl acetic CH3CH2CH(CH3)COOH................

-80

177

Trimethylacetic (CH3)3CCOOH................

35.4

163.7

Methyl ethyl acetic acid, containing an asymmetrical carbon atom, exists in (+), (-), and racemic forms; the (+) form, in the form of esters, is contained in essential oils. Of greatest importance are the isovaleric and methyl ethyl acetic acids, which are obtained chiefly by the oxidation of isoamyl alcohols.

Esters of valeric acid and fatty alcohols having a fruity scent are used in the food-processing industry; esters of valeric acid and aromatic or terpene alcohols are used in per- fume manufacture.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, they observed that this regeneration is more favorable with acetic acid when compared to using other carboxylic acids such as formic, butyric, or valeric acids. Formation of stable intermediary compound is also not favored as it may hinder the regeneration of amine groups of chitosan.
Considerable amounts of isobutyric (10-12[micro]mol/L), isovaleric (9-12[micro]mol/ L), and valeric acids (4-5[micro]mol/L) were also formed.
Surprisingly, the amount of valeric acids, which is produced from branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; Macfarlane and Macfarlane, 1995), was also significantly increased by DLMHA supplementation, while the metabolic linkage between SAA and BCAAs is weak.
The addition of DL-MHA in diet had a linear increase (p<0.05) in acetic acid and total SCFAs concentration in the cecum, whereas valeric acid in the cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels.
In current study, however, a significant increase in the amount of butyric acid in the cecum was not observed, while acetic acid and valeric acid contents in the cecum were significantly increased.
Total VFA and concentration of acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids decreased linearly with addition of CT (Table 2).
In contrast, the proportion of branched-chain VFA (BCVFA) and valeric acids to total VFA were 39 and 14% lower respectively (p < 0.02) for the 30% fresh citrus pulp diet compared to the control, while the molar proportion of propionic acid was higher (p < 0.02) for the 30% fresh citrus pulp diet than the control diet.
But no significant difference was seen in the concentration of butyric and valeric acids among treatments.
Fermentation characteristics by inocula from CHR had significantly lower acetic acid, and OF inocula produced the highest butyric and valeric acids. The NCON produced the highest propionic acid.
But as far as horrific smells go, valeric acid takes the cake.