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Valladolid(välyäthōlēth`), city (1990 pop. 333,680), capital of Valladolid prov., N central Spain, in Castile-León, at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers and on the Canal de Castilla. A communications and manufacturing center, Valladolid is also an important grain market. The city has played an important role in Spanish history. Of obscure origin (its name is derived from the Arabic), it was conquered by the Christians from the Moors in the 10th cent., rose to prominence in the 12th and 13th cent., and largely replaced Toledo as the chief residence of the kings of Castile in the 15th cent. In 1469 it was the scene of the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. Christopher Columbus died (1506) in the city. It declined greatly after 1561, when Philip II made Madrid the Spanish capital (the capital was returned to Valladolid 1600–1606). Many of its older buildings were destroyed by the French during the Peninsular War (1808–14). Today Valladolid remains an important cultural center. Its university, founded in 1346, has a rich library with valuable manuscripts. The house of Columbus and the house where Cervantes wrote part of Don Quixote have been preserved. Other landmarks include the Colegio de Santa Cruz, built in the plateresque style, now housing a museum; the Colegio de San Gregorio (15th cent.), with a lavishly adorned facade; the former royal palace; and the churches of San Pablo and Santa María Antigua (12th–13th cent.).
a Spanish city in Old Castile on the Pisuerga River (a tributary of the Duero) and the Canal de Castilla. Administrative center of Valladolid Province. Population, 174,600(1968).
Valladolid has recently become a large center of automobile and tractor production. There is an aluminum plant that produced more than one-fifth of Spanish aluminum in 1965, enterprises that produce nitric fertilizer, and flour, textile, and leather industries.
Vallodolid is known to have existed since the tenth century. The city is laid out irregularly, with the Plaza Mayor framed by porticoes and many buildings in the plateresque style (15th century). They include churches and the colleges of Santa Cruz (now an archaeological museum, architect E. de Egas) and San Gregorio (since 1938 a national museum of religious sculpture, architect J. Guas). Among other buildings are the Church of Santa Maria la Antigua (11th—14th centuries), the cathedral (1582, architect J. de Herrera; unfinished), and the university (founded in 1346; facade dates from 1715). There is a monument to Columbus (1905) and other monuments in Valladolid.