Van


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Van

(vän), city (1990 pop. 153,525), capital of Van prov., E Turkey, near the eastern shore of Lake VanVan, Lake
, 1,453 sq mi (3,763 sq km), largest lake in Turkey, in E Turkey 65 mi (105 km) SW of Mt. Ararat. Some 75 mi (120 km) long, the lake is alkaline and has no outlet; the city of Van is near the lake's east shore.
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, at an altitude of 5,659 ft (1,725 m). It is the trade center for a fruit- and grain-growing region. Now predominantly Kurdish, Van was the cradle of an ancient Armenian civilization. It was the capital of the old Vannic kingdom of UrartuUrartu
, ancient kingdom of Armenia and N Mesopotamia, centered about Lake Van in present-day E Turkey. It was the biblical Ararat. Urartu flourished from the 13th cent. to the 7th cent. B.C., but was most powerful in the 8th cent. B.C., when it ruled over most of N Syria.
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 or Ararat. The city fell to the Seljuk Turks (1071) and to the Ottoman Turks in 1543. Near the city is the mound of Toprakkale where excavations in the 19th cent. uncovered the remains of the town of Urartu. Many tablets with so-called Vannic inscriptions relating to early Armenian history were found. In 1939 archaeologists discovered fortifications and various materials dating from the 8th cent. B.C. Many of the Armenians living in the region were massacred by the Turks in 1895 and also during World War I, when control of Van was contested by Russia. Van suffered significant damage from an earthquake in 2011.

Van

 

a city in eastern Turkey and administrative center of the vilayet of Van; located near the western shore of Lake Van. Population, 31,000 (1965). Trading center of an agricultural district (wheat). Cement-making and flour-milling industries are found in Van.

From the ninth to the sixth century B.C. the capital of the state of Urartu-Turuspa was located on the site of Van. Turuspa was known as Van from the sixth century B.C. In ancient Armenia under Tigranes II (first century B.C.), Van was a town of considerable importance. In 364 A.D. it was severely damaged by the troops of the Sassanian king Sapor II. It again became an important town in the tenth century as part of the Vaspuragan Kingdom. In 1022 it was seized by Byzantium and then by the Seljuks. In the second half of the 14th century it was destroyed twice by the troops of Timur. In the 17th century the city was seized by the Turks. In 1895-96 under Sultan Abdul-Hamid II the population of Van was subjected to a cruel pogrom, during which thousands of Armenians were slaughtered. During World War I (1914-18) the Armenian population was evicted and annihilated by the Turkish authorities.

B. N. ARAKELYAN


Van

 

a lake in Turkey located in the Armenian Highlands at an altitude of 1,720 m. Area, approximately 3,700 sq km; depth, more than 145 m.

The origin of the lake bed is basically tectonic, but the lake’s waters were also dammed up by the products of eruptions of the Siukhan and Nemrut volcanoes, which formed the northern and western shores. The lake is without drainage; it softens to a degree the climate of the neighboring mountains. The water of Van Lake is saline (19.1 parts per thousand). The populace living along its shores engages in fishing and salt extraction. The lake is navigable.

van

[van]
(mining engineering)
A test of the value of an ore, made by washing (vanning) a small quantity, after powdering it, on the point of a shovel.
To separate, as ore from veinstone, by washing it on the point of a shovel.
A shovel used in ore dressing.

van

1. a covered motor vehicle for transporting goods, etc., by road
2. Brit a closed railway wagon in which the guard travels, for transporting goods, mail, etc.
3. Brit See delivery van

Van

1. a city in E Turkey, on Lake Van. Pop.: 377 000 (2005 est.)
2. Lake. a salt lake in E Turkey, at an altitude of 1650 m (5400 ft.): fed by melting snow and glaciers. Area: 3737 sq. km (1433 sq. miles)

VAN

References in classic literature ?
He fetched up against the foot of the mizzenmast, while Captain Van Horn, with the sailor's eye for the coral patch under his bow, gave the order "Hard a-lee
He cleared the danger of the mainsheet with a wild leap (although no less wild had been Van Horn's leap to rescue him), and found himself directly under the mainboom with the huge sail looming above him as if about to fall upon him and crush him.
With spontaneity of admiration, Van Horn swept Jerry from the deck and gathered him into his arms.
The whole of the window sashes reeked with it, and round Lucy's neck, over the silk handkerchief which Van Helsing made her keep on, was a rough chaplet of the same odorous flowers.
Presently she woke, and I gave her food, as Van Helsing had prescribed.
For fully five minutes Van Helsing stood looking at her, with his face at its sternest.
I assured him that Lucy was still asleep, but told him as gently as i could that both Van Helsing and I feared that the end was near.
When we came into Lucy's room I could see that Van Helsing had, with his usual forethought, been putting matters straight and making everything look as pleasing as possible.
He was stooping to kiss her, when Van Helsing motioned him back.
Arthur bent eagerly over to kiss her, but at that instant Van Helsing, who, like me, had been startled by her voice, swooped upon him, and catching him by the neck with both hands, dragged him back with a fury of strength which I never thought he could have possessed, and actually hurled him almost across the room.
I kept my eyes fixed on Lucy, as did Van Helsing, and we saw a spasm as of rage flit like a shadow over her face.
Very shortly after she opened her eyes in all their softness, and putting out her poor, pale, thin hand, took Van Helsing's great brown one, drawing it close to her, she kissed it.