(in ancient Russian chronicles, “Sparrow City” [vorobiinyi górod] or “Sparrows’ Nose” [vorob’ev ras]), a heavily fortified town (walls up to 10 m high) in the Estonian SSR (Raplaskii Raion). Area, about 2 hectares.
Excavations made between 1938 and 1941 and in 1953 revealed that Varbola was founded in the 12th century. In 1212 the city was besieged by people from Novgorod and Pskov and forced to pay tribute. In the beginning of the 13th century Varbola was an important strong point of the Estonians in their struggle with German and Danish invaders. Varbola was probably destroyed and abandoned at the time of the Iur’ev Night Uprising.
REFERENCEMoora, H. “Muistsete Linnuste Uurimise: Tulemustest Eesti NSV-s.” In Muistsed Asulad ja Linnused: Arheoloogiline kogumik. Tallinn, 1955. (Summary in Russian.)
KH. A. MOORA