(in ancient Russian chronicles, “Sparrow City” [vorobiinyi górod] or “Sparrows’ Nose” [vorob’ev ras]), a heavily fortified town (walls up to 10 m high) in the Estonian SSR (Raplaskii Raion). Area, about 2 hectares.

Excavations made between 1938 and 1941 and in 1953 revealed that Varbola was founded in the 12th century. In 1212 the city was besieged by people from Novgorod and Pskov and forced to pay tribute. In the beginning of the 13th century Varbola was an important strong point of the Estonians in their struggle with German and Danish invaders. Varbola was probably destroyed and abandoned at the time of the Iur’ev Night Uprising.


Moora, H. “Muistsete Linnuste Uurimise: Tulemustest Eesti NSV-s.” In Muistsed Asulad ja Linnused: Arheoloogiline kogumik. Tallinn, 1955. (Summary in Russian.)


References in periodicals archive ?
The hill fort of Varbola is located in a completely different natural settings.
Varbola linnusesse kokku, tapsid moningad taanlastest ja nene preestritest, kes nendega koos elasid .
Varbola analoogiat voiks ju rakendada--taanlased olid linnuses koos kohalikega--, kuid Henriku kroonika ei anna selleks paraku voimalust.
A sister vessel to Norse Merchant's Varbola, which operates on the Heysham Belfast route, Leili can also carry 12 driver-accompanied units.
Patterns on spearheads from Poide Mui (AI 2712: 15), Kaarma Loona (AI 507: 4) and Nissi Varbola (AI 3403: 3) are preserved too fragmentarily to attribute.
Nevertheless we can assert that the average measurements of cattle bones from Pada are mostly larger than in the Latest Iron Age hillfort of Varbola and the medieval material of Estonia.
In this paper I shall investigate the experiments conducted by Emperor Napoleon III (the first known experiment of its kind), Danish historian Peter Vemming Hansen (which yielded in the biggest amount of scientific information), and Estonian reconstructions in Varbola and Lihula.
Similar stretches of limestone rubble surrounding house bases have been discovered at Varbola ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1980, Fig.
Thus the height of the stove furnaces on the Pada and Soontagana hill-forts has been estimated to have reached 30-40 cm and at Varbola, even 50-00 cm (TAMJIa 1984, 361; Tonisson 1981, 48).
In Pomerania, the hill-forts of Bardy and Kolobrzeg-Budzistowo, in Latvia for instance Daugmale, in Estonia the large 12th century hill-forts Varbola, Poide and Pada can be cited as the best examples.