Varbola

Varbola

 

(in ancient Russian chronicles, “Sparrow City” [vorobiinyi górod] or “Sparrows’ Nose” [vorob’ev ras]), a heavily fortified town (walls up to 10 m high) in the Estonian SSR (Raplaskii Raion). Area, about 2 hectares.

Excavations made between 1938 and 1941 and in 1953 revealed that Varbola was founded in the 12th century. In 1212 the city was besieged by people from Novgorod and Pskov and forced to pay tribute. In the beginning of the 13th century Varbola was an important strong point of the Estonians in their struggle with German and Danish invaders. Varbola was probably destroyed and abandoned at the time of the Iur’ev Night Uprising.

REFERENCE

Moora, H. “Muistsete Linnuste Uurimise: Tulemustest Eesti NSV-s.” In Muistsed Asulad ja Linnused: Arheoloogiline kogumik. Tallinn, 1955. (Summary in Russian.)

KH. A. MOORA

References in periodicals archive ?
The most diverse, early Rhuddanian brachiopod fauna noted in this study has been reported from the Estonian shelf (Varbola Fm.) and basinal deposits (Ohne Fm.) of the Juuru RS in the Central East Baltic (Rubel & Roomusoks 1970; Rubel et al.
Contract award notice: Phimaantee nr 4 (E67) Tallinn-Prnu-Ikla km 50,4 62,0 Varbola Pdeva ligu phiprojekt.
The hill fort of Varbola is located in a completely different natural settings.
Omaette voimupesa naib olevat Varbola. Seal tapeti saarlaste, harjulaste ja mereaarsete eestlaste uhisaktsiooni tulemusel 1222.
A sister vessel to Norse Merchant's Varbola, which operates on the Heysham Belfast route, Leili can also carry 12 driver-accompanied units.
(2014) reported that the HICE terminates in the Tartu core in the lower part of the Silurian Varbola Fm.
Contract notice: The main road 4 (e67) tallinn prnu-ikla km 50.4 to 62.0 varbola - pdeva paragraph of the basic project.
Patterns on spearheads from Poide Mui (AI 2712: 15), Kaarma Loona (AI 507: 4) and Nissi Varbola (AI 3403: 3) are preserved too fragmentarily to attribute.
(b) northern East Baltic stratigraphical units--A, Aigu Beds; H, Himmiste Beds; JiP, Paramaja Member of the Jaani Formation; J2, Jaagarahu Stage; JG, Jaagarahu Formation; JM, Jamaja Formation; K, Kudjape Beds; K1, Rootsikula Stage; [K.sub,2], Paadla Stage; [K.sub,3]a, Kuressaare Stage; [K.sub,3]b, Kaugatuma Stage; [K.sub.4], Ohesaare Stage; Kn, Kuusnomme Beds; L, Loo Beds; M, Maasi Beds; Ms, Mustjala Beds; N, Ninase Beds; R, Rumba Formation; RKs, Riksu Formation; RK, Raikkula Formation; S, Sauvere Beds; Sn, Soeginina Beds; SR, Sorve Formation; T, Tahula Beds; Tg, Tagavere Beds; TM, Tamsalu Formation; TR, Torgu Formation; U, Uduvere Beds; V, Vilsandi Beds; Vents., Ventspils Formation; VL, Velise Formation; VR, Varbola Formation; Vs, Vesiku Beds; Vt, Viita Beds;
Nevertheless we can assert that the average measurements of cattle bones from Pada are mostly larger than in the Latest Iron Age hillfort of Varbola and the medieval material of Estonia.
In this paper I shall investigate the experiments conducted by Emperor Napoleon III (the first known experiment of its kind), Danish historian Peter Vemming Hansen (which yielded in the biggest amount of scientific information), and Estonian reconstructions in Varbola and Lihula.