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(The Bell), a Lithuanian sociopolitical and literary newspaper with a liberal bourgeois orientation that was published from 1889 to 1905. It played an important role in the development of realist literature and social thought in Lithuania. The first editor of Varpas was V. Kudirka. The paper defended the interests of the young, primarily rural Lithuanian bourgeoisie, fought for the national rights of the people, and denounced the tsarist administration in Lithuania. In its battle against clericalism, it disseminated scientific knowledge. It proposed resolving social issues by means of reforms. Among its contributors were the progressive Lithuanian writers Žemaitė, Ladzinus Peleda, and J. Biliunas. It was published abroad because of the tsarist government’s ban on the Lithuanian press.