Vasculitis

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Related to Vasculitides: vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa

vasculitis

[‚vas·kyə′līd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of a blood vessel or a lymph vessel. Also known as angiitis.

Vasculitis

 

inflammation of the walls of the small blood vessels. Vasculitis is usually caused by influenza, typhus, streptococcal infections (erysipelas, angina), or physical factors (frostbite, burns). Vasculitis may also arise as a secondary manifestation of collagen or allergic diseases, such as rheumatism, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and serum and drug diseases. Sometimes vasculitis may be caused by a combination of some of these factors. The most usual, and often the only, external symptom of vasculitis is affection of the skin (hemorrhages, rashes, necrotic nidi, and so forth). As vasculitis progresses, thrombi may form in the vessels (thrombovasculitis), necrosis of the walls of the vessels may occur, and aneurysms may form. In the final stage of vasculitis complete occlusion of the vessels by a thrombus may occur, which leads to the disrupting of nutrition to the corresponding tissues and organs, bursting of aneurysms, and hemorrhaging into the surrounding tissues. Vasculitis is classified according to site as cutaneous and visceral; the latter predominantly affects the vessels of serous and mucous membranes of internal organs, such as the liver and kidneys. Treatment consists of the removal of the main disease causing the vasculitis.

REFERENCE

Davydovskii, I. V. Patoligicheskaia anatomiia i patogenez boleznei cheloveka, 3rd ed., vols. 1-2. Moscow, 1956-58.

IU. I. ZAK

References in periodicals archive ?
Clinical analysis of nervous system involvement in ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides. Clin Exp Rheumatol.
Presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal involvement in systemic necrotizing vasculitides: analysis of 62 patients with polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, or rheumatoid arthritis-associated vasculitis.
The studies reviewed above may present new options for treatment of patients with systemic vasculitides. In addition, the new treatment guidelines from the British Society for Rheumatology will likely be helpful to clinicians who care for these patients who are commonly difficult to treat and manage.
In some vasculitides, the immune response may be "normal" and substrate abnormalities may drive injury-response patterns.
As mentioned, there are other categories of arterial diseases: vasculitides, neoplasms, malformations, angiodysplasias, and inheritable disorders of connective tissue.
Over the years, the American College of Rheumatology has published many sets of classification criteria, including those for vasculitides. (3) Although these criteria were said to be intended for classification only, physicians continued to use them for diagnosis.
Large-vessel vasculitides, for instance giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, Behcet's syndrome, and Cogan's syndrome along with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and relapsing polychondritis may present with noninfectious aortitis.
(10) Vasculitides, such as Wegener granulomatosis and nodular sarcoid (which can have focal necrosis), are also inflammatory mass lesions in this differential.
Less commonly, epididymitis may result from hematogenous infection, trauma, idiopathic granulomatous disease, and vasculitides, such as Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Kawasaki disease.
Diagnosis requires at least 5 criteria, including 2 major criteria with exclusion of infections, malignancies and vasculitides.
Interestingly, prevalence rates of Behcet's syndrome were similar to combined rates of other primary small vessel vasculitides, such as WG, CSS, and MAP, suggesting that Behcet's syndrome may be more prevalent than previously assumed.
Familial vasculitides: Churg-Strauss syndrome and Wegener's granulomatosis in 2 first-degree relatives.