Vasoconstrictor


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vasoconstrictor

[¦vā·zō·kən′strik·tər]
(physiology)
A nerve or an agent that causes blood vessel constriction.

Vasoconstrictor

 

one of a group of pharmacological agents that cause the constriction of the smooth muscles of blood vessels, which results in a narrowing of vascular lumens and an increase in arterial pressure and resistance to blood flow.

A distinction is made between vasoconstrictors with central action and those with peripheral action. Vasoconstrictors with central action stimulate the centers of the nervous regulation of vascular tone. The principal representatives of these neural stimulants are caffeine, strychnine, korazole, cordiamin, and camphor. Vasoconstrictors with peripheral action primarily include substances that excite the adrenergic receptors of blood vessels; these substances include epinephrine, norepinephrine, Mezaton (Adrianol), and ephedrine. Myotropic agents, for example, vasopressin and angiotensin, constitute a special group of vasoconstrictors with peripheral action. Astringents also have a local vasoconstrictive effect.

Vasoconstrictors are used to treat collapse; locally, they are used to halt bleeding and, in laryngological practice, to diminish inflammatory phenomena.

REFERENCE

Anichkov, S. V. Izbiratel’noe deistvie mediatornykh sredstv. Leningrad, 1974.
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It is well known that the vasoconstrictors, the triptans, are less effective and sometimes have no effect, even in patients with proven arterial pain, if the headache has been allowed to become very severe before the medication is used.
Terlipressin, a provasopressin drug exhibits direct vasoconstrictor properties: consequences on heart perfusion and performance.
Injected and Topical Local Anaesthetics and Vasoconstrictors
7 Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictors are absolutely safe to use in pregnant patients on the condition that an absolutely precise technique is used to avoid the risk of intravascular injection.
Markers of oxidative stress and endothelial damage were increased and correlated with resuscitation fluid requirements, vasoconstrictor use, organ failure and death.
Studies with larger number of patients comparing terlipressin with other vasoconstrictor agents may further enrich our knowledge regarding factors associated with better response.
During volume loss, circulating vasoconstrictors are released increasing vascular resistance and blood pressure.
Our subjects were very well-trained individuals; therefore, the action of vasoconstrictor mechanisms on these regions under mild exercise conditions may not have produced enough of a physiologic strain with the metabolic activity of the muscles involved in running.
Xylometazolinenasal drops (4 drops in each nostril) were used as vasoconstrictor to reduce nasal bleeding due to instrumentation.
Furthermore the crude plant has been investigated for various other pharmacological actions and exhibited local anesthetic smooth muscle relaxant antifungal anti-ulcerogenic anti-ascariasis anthelmintic cardiac depressant uterine relaxation and vasoconstrictor activities [2].
5] M), the high sensitivity Ach-mediated vasoconstriction, previously described, was practically abolished in all the vessels studied, suggesting a coupling mechanism between activation of muscarinic receptors with the production of vasoconstrictor prostanoids mediated by COX in Girella laevifrons.
The Cold pressor test (CPT) elicits the pressor response to a cold stimulus and is an indicator of vasoconstrictor tone.