In the middle volume of a three-volume set of textbooks for a series of courses that replaced the traditional course of theoretical physics, Maiani illustrates the conceptual route that led to the unification of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, starting from the identification of the weak hadronic current with the isotopic spin current; through the conserved

vector current hypothesis of Fenman, Gell-Mann, and others; to Yang-Mills theory and to the first electroweak theory of Glashow.

The amplitude of the impressed stator

vector current is can be expressed with the d-q-axis current and the voltage can be expressed by the battery as it follows:

Lee, the first two Chinese Nobel Laureates; conducted experiments in beta decay and the experimental confirmation of

vector current conservation in beta decay; participated in the Manhattan Project; and was the first female President of the American Physical Society.

beta decays [4], CKM unitarity (assumes conserved

vector current, CKM unitarity, and values of |[V.

v]), test Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity, limit scalar and tensor currents, and search for Charged

Vector Current (CVC) violation.

Precision measurements of these parameters can test the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, provide limits on weak scalar and tensor currents, right-handed currents, conserved

vector current (CVC) violation and second-class currents, and other possible new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics.