Vedas

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Related to Vedic scripture: Rigveda
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Vedas

 

the most ancient memorials of Indian literature, created in the period from the end of the second millennium to the first half of the first millennium B.C. in the ancient Indian language of Vedic.

The Vedas, or Vedic literature, include several categories of memorials, chronologically succeeding each other: the Vedas proper, or samhitas, which are four compilations of hymns, songs, and sacrificial formulas (the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda); brahmanas, which are theological tracts explaining the priestly ritual; and Aranyakas and Upanishads, which are philosophical writings in verse and prose, among which the 12 to 14 early Upanishads stand apart for their significance and literary merits. Serving as the sacred texts of Brahmanism. adepts consider the Vedas to be divine revelation-shruii literaly, “that which was heard”); in religious functions the Vedas were transmitted orally, by memory. In content, the Vedas are syncretic: they combine ritual instructions with an exposition of philosophic, moral, and social theories; elements of magic are combined with the rudiments of scientific conceptions; based on primitive folklore and mythology, they include the elements of literary genres. As a whole, the Vedas reflect the transitional stage of the Indian tribes from a primitive-communal social structure to class society; they are very valuable sources, frequently the only ones, for the social-economic and cultural history of ancient India. The Vedanga (literally, parts of the Vedas) tracts are connected to the Vedas but are not part of divine revelation. Instead, these tracts on phonetics, grammar, etymology, metrics, astronomy, and ritual are auxiliary disciplines essential for the correct interpretation of Vedic texts.

REFERENCES

Ovsianiko-Kulikovskii, D. N. “Religiia indusov v epokhu ved.” In the collection Izbr. Moscow, 1962.
The History and Culture of the Indian People. Vol. 1: The Vedic Age, London [1957].
Winternitz, M. A History of Indian Literature, vol. 1, part 1. [Calcutta] 1959. (Translated from German.)
Dandekar, R. N. Vedic Bibliography, vols. 1-2. Bombay-Poona, 1946-61.

P. A. GRINTSER and A. M. OSIPOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Vedas

(dreams)

One of the traditional criteria for being considered an orthodox Hindu is that one must acknowledge the authority of the four Vedas. These ancient religious texts (three thousand to four thousand years old, although Hindus regard them as being much older) often express ideas and values at odds with later Hinduism, much as the first five books of the Old Testament express a religious ideology at variance from that of current Christianity. Because of the authority and sacredness of the Vedas, many subsequent religious movements claimed to be Vedic, and certain texts of later Hinduism—texts closer to the worldview of contemporaneous Hindus—were referred to as Vedas. The strand of Indian spirituality represented by the Hare Krishna movement, for example, refers to certain Puranic texts—which are sacred texts dated later than the Vedas—as Vedas.

Among the original four Vedas, the Artharva Veda contains a fair amount of material on dreams. Various dream omens are discussed (e.g., riding on an elephant in a dream is considered auspicious, whereas riding on a donkey is inauspicious). The effects of inauspicious dreams can be counteracted by certain purificatory rites. The Artharva Veda also contains the unique assertion that the impact from an omen dream will take place sooner or later depending on whether it occurred at the beginning of the evening (later) or just prior to awakening (sooner).

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

Vedas,

the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. [Hinduism: NCE, 2870]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
He always loved to read and impart the knowledge of Vedas as a result of which he initiated opening of several schools/institutes for the learning of the Vedic scriptures," said Salil Singhal, Trustee, Singhal Foundation.
Classical Brahmanical thinking holds that there are basically three sources of knowledge about dharma: Vedic scripture (sruti), non-Vedic scripture (smrti), and the customs of cultured people (sadacara).
He was also honoured from Shankaracharyas of all four peeths for studying Vedic scriptures and religious texts.
He did this through the very name he translated into Persian for the term "Upanisad" "The Great Secret," and through the way he explicated the nature of the Vedic scriptures' secrecy.
The Vedic scriptures teach, "Mahajano yena gatah so panthah," one should traverse the path which is followed by great personalities.
Nyaya, the main school of classical Indian logic, is of particular theological interest, since for well over a millennium in ancient and medieval India its great teachers argued for the existence of God as creator and as author of the Vedic scriptures. Parallel Christian views of creation, revelation, and divine action can be clarified by the study of Nyaya.
ISKCON follows the teachings of the Vedas and Vedic scriptures, including the Bhagavad-Gita and Srimad Bhagavatam, which teach Vaishnavism or devotion to God (Krishna) in His Supreme Personal aspect of Sri Sri Radha Krishna.
The movement of some current liberal Christians, especially those enamored by liberation theology, to make the Vedic Scriptures of India or other basic religious writings into another Old Testament for the Greek New Testament only underscores the failure of many Christians to understand and accept the truth about Jesus.
one must be incapable of doing crime, things such as telling lies, committing theft and murder (Anguttara Nikayas.) It seems, however, that all these observations and instructions are substantially available in the Vedic scriptures which the Buddha learns and experiences by his own practices.
d.) are graded texts that explain the fundamental concepts of Hinduism such as the nature of Dharma, God, Prayer, principles of Hinduism, Yoga, Yagna and Sanskara, Vedic scriptures, and Law of Action (Karma).
(Sans, " viewing " ) In Hinduism, the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, all of which accept the Vedic scriptures as divine law and outline approaches to moksha, or salvation, the release from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
"Those who fail to give cows reverence and protection and choose to foolishly oppose and whimsically ignore the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures by selling a cow for slaughter, by killing a cow, by eating cow's flesh and by permitting the slaughter of cows will all rot in the darkest regions of hell for as many thousands of years as there are hairs on the body of each cow slain.