Velasco Ibarra, José María(redirected from Velasco Ibarra, José Maria)
Velasco Ibarra, José María(hōsā` märē`ä vāläs`kō ēbä`rä), 1893–1979, president of Ecuador (1934–35, 1944–47, 1952–56, 1960–61, 1968–72). A noted orator, he was twice elected president and deposed before succeeding Galo Plaza LassoPlaza Lasso, Galo
, 1906–87, president of Ecuador (1948–52) and secretary-general of the Organization of American States (OAS; 1968–75), b. New York City.
..... Click the link for more information. as president in 1952. Although he censored the press, he spurred the construction of new schools and roads; the country prospered, and he managed to complete his term. Elected again in 1960, he announced a program of economic reform but soon became unpopular as a result of austerity measures. He was forced (Nov., 1961) by an army junta to resign. Reelected in 1968, he faced a hostile congress, overwhelming economic problems, and increasing political chaos. After rioting by thousands of university students, he disbanded congress and, with the backing of the army, established a dictatorship (June, 1970). In Feb., 1972, after Velasco Ibarra insisted upon holding elections in which populist leader Assad Bucaram seemed certain to win, military leaders overthrew Velasco Ibarra and replaced him with a junta headed by Gen. Guillermo Rodriguez Lara.
Velasco Ibarra, José María
Born Mar. 19, 1893, in Quito. Statesman and political figure in Ecuador.
A lawyer by profession, Velasco Ibarra graduated from universities in Quito and Paris. He occupied a series of government posts (state counsellor and procurator of the city of Quito) and was president of Ecuador from 1934 to 1935, 1944 to 1947, 1952 to 1956, and 1960 to 1961. He was removed from power several times as a result of coups d’etat connected with his attempts to establish a personal dictatorship. He spent more than 20 years as an émigré. In 1952 his supporters from various strata of society united in the National Federation of Velasquists. (In 1968 this became a party.) On several occasions, Velasco Ibarra made anti-imperialist statements and promised to introduce socioeconomic reforms and establish and normalize relations with all countries, including the socialist countries. This promoted his popularity and, in part, his victory in the 1968 elections, as a result of Which he became president of Ecuador for the fifth time. In June 1970, supported by the army, Velasco Ibarra abolished the constitution, dissolved congress, and established a dictatorial regime. He was overthrown in February 1972 as a result of a coup d’etat.