Vendôme, César, duc de

Vendôme, César, duc de

(sāzär` dük də väNdōm`), 1594–1665, French general and politician; son of King Henry IVHenry IV,
1553–1610, king of France (1589–1610) and, as Henry III, of Navarre (1572–1610), son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret; first of the Bourbon kings of France.
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 and his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées. Legitimized in 1595, he was made duke of Vendôme in 1598, and also acquired Brittany through marriage. He rebelled against Marie de' MediciMarie de' Medici
, 1573–1642, queen of France, second wife of King Henry IV and daughter of Francesco de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany. She was married to Henry in 1600. After his assassination (1610) she became regent for her son Louis XIII.
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 (1614–16) and against the duc de LuynesLuynes, Charles d'Albert, duc de
, 1578–1621, constable of France, minister and favorite of King Louis XIII. With the king's collaboration he caused the assassination of Concino Concini (1617), took over the government, and forced Marie de' Medici into exile.
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 (1620) and was imprisoned (1626–30) for conspiring against Cardinal RichelieuRichelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, duc de
(Cardinal Richelieu) , 1585–1642, French prelate and statesman, chief minister of King Louis XIII, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
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. In 1641 he was forced to flee after being accused of plotting against Richelieu. Returning after Richelieu's death, he was exiled (1643) for conspiring against Cardinal MazarinMazarin, Jules
, 1602–61, French statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, b. Italy. His original name was Giulio Mazarini. After serving in the papal army and diplomatic service and as nuncio at the French court (1634–36), he entered the service of France
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. However, he was reconciled, married his son to a niece of Mazarin's, and fought on the government side in the FrondeFronde
, 1648–53, series of outbreaks during the minority of King Louis XIV, caused by the efforts of the Parlement of Paris (the chief judiciary body) to limit the growing authority of the crown; by the personal ambitions of discontented nobles; and by the grievances of
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; he captured (1653) Bordeaux, and in 1655 he defeated a Spanish fleet at Barcelona.
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